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'Always Give a Reason Why' - How to describe this subject area?

'Always Give a Reason Why' - How to describe this subject area?


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I summarise http://rayedwards.com/always-give-a-reason-why/:

In Dr. Robert Cialdini's book, Influence, he cites a research study showing that simply adding the word “because” to a request multiplies the likelihood of compliance.

Interestingly, the study seems to indicate that the legitimacy of the reasons supplied did not seem as important to the outcome as you might suppose. In fact, it seems hardly necessary to have a real reason at all.

For example, you might ask to cut line at the post office, and be more likely to get a “yes” response from the person in front of you if you simply frame your question by saying something like, “Would it be possible for me to please cut a front of you in line, because I'm really in a hurry.”

I recognise the lack of substantiated evidence in the above quote, but I'm interested in learning about such empirically, scientifically proven behaviour and human psychology (eg through reputable peer-reviewed articles). To clarify, I seek not the hard data itself, but only conclusions and tips supported by credible evidence. I only chanced upon that above link, so to discover more in this area methodically and productively, what are some key words terming this subject? Where should I start?

I've no training in sciences, so I'd cherish answers and advice written in lay, simple, readable language.


This particular study, sometimes called the "Xerox Experiment", was done by Ellen Langer, who studies "mindfullness", but that may not be what you are looking for. It is also cited on Wikipedia under Attitude Change - Heuristic Processing:

For example, people are more likely to grant favors if reasons are provided. A study shows that when people said, "Excuse me, I have five pages to xerox. May I use the copier?” they received a positive response of 60%. The statement, “Excuse me, I have five pages to xerox. I am in a rush. May I use the copier?” produced a 95% success rate.

It is worth noting however, that a study published in the same year by Stanley Milgram (famous for his obedience experiments in the 60's), cited on Wikipedia under "Breaching Experiments", about people giving up their seats in the subway found a similar success rate when no reason was given, but a significantly lower compliance rate if a trivial reason was provided:

the second condition, the trivial justification… a much lower number gave up their seats.

A related field that a layman might find more accessible, is called "behavioural economics", and there is also a lot of overlap with "cognitive bias". Search YouTube for Dan Ariely, you'll learn lots of neat tips and tricks just like this one, backed by peer-reviewed studies, about how easily people can be manipulated.


Cialdini's book Influence is great, I wish I hadn't lost my copy of it… I always considered that to be a social psych book, so perhaps you should study social psychology if you have an interest in this sort of thing. You could also consider glancing at his Wikipedia page for more information about where his journal articles were published… this could provide some clues as to which journals/textbooks to look into.

Also note, the idea of adding the word "because" to a request is related to the idea of pretexting, which is studied by social engineers. While (I think) this isn't technically considered part of psychology, I would imagine that social engineering is considered relevant to cognitive science.

Disclaimer: I am not a professional psychologist, just an enthusiast.


Summary:

  • Don't just give any reason. a certain type of "grating" reason (as explained in 2nd half of my post) has been shown to backfire and be worse than none.
  • A syntactically correct but semantically (fairly) meaningless reason could be classified as a peripheral route to persuasion. In low stakes situations, a vacuous (but not grating) reason may work better than none, but as the stakes increase so does the scrutiny applied to the reason.

Let me start by elaborating on experiments mentioned by Arnon Weinberg (because I think some of the details are necessary before trying to conclude from the perspective of later works):

Actually Wikipedia doesn't detail the Xerox experiment well enough. The actual result was a bit more complicated: for small favors (in which the requester had fewer [actually 5] pages to copy than the recipient of the request [who had 20]) it made no difference whether the reason given was non-informative ("placebic") or real/plausible. But when the favor was "big" (the requester had more copies [20] to make than the recipient [who had 5]), the reason given did make a difference… and in fact giving a "placebic" reason was no better than no reason at all for big favors.

Also (contra to what Ana said) in the xerox experiment the reasons were terse, either bare request "Excuse me, I have 5 (20) pages. May I use the xerox machine?" or +"because I have to make copies" ("placebic") or +"because I'm in a rush" ("real"). I think that Cialdini's logic for always giving a reason is that in this experiment giving a reason was not worse than giving none (in any scenario), but also keep in mind that "not worse" does not equal "always better"; giving a "placebic" reason for a big favor didn't work (but also didn't hurt).

I think that in the Milligram subway experiment the reason given was worse than "placebic" though. In the xerox experiment you cannot really refute the "placebic" reason "because I have to make copies" with respect to the use of the xerox (you can't [easily] make copies otherwise). So while it may sound weird it's not that grating (to me). On the other hand in the Milligram subway experiment, the reason was "I can't read my book standing up" which is something that most people can mentally refute as probably fake right away… But this is just me theorizing. It would be nice if someone redid one of the experiments with 4 arms for the argument given: none, implausible, neutral/repetition, and plausible.


In the (very highly cited ~8K cites in GS, ~10x the Xerox experiment) "Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion" of Petty and Cacioppo (1986), giving a "placebic" argument would probably be classified as a peripheral route to persuasion. They note (actually it's one of their "postulates") that

As motivation and/or ability to process arguments is decreased, peripheral cues become relatively more important determinants of persuasion.

By peripheral cues they mean among other things repetition (Trump being a good recent example, heh), distraction etc. I guess a "placebic" reason counts as a form of distraction. But also note that in the Xerox experiment the placebic reason is also a form repetition "I need X because I need X", alhouth with a slightly different formulation for the 2nd X.

Petty and Cacioppo actually discuss the Xerox experiment of Langer on p. 159, remarking after summarizing it that

Folkes (1985) provided a partial replication of this effect. In two field studies using the inconsequential request (making five copies), respondents were equally willing to comply whether the request containing the valid or the placebic reason. In a thind study, however, the subjects were asked to guess how they would respond to the requests and to "think carefully before answering". When instructed to think before responding, the valid reason produced significantly more anticipation of compliance than the placebic reason.

Furthermore!! Folkes pretty much did what I hoped someone would do, and also tested with an obnoxious reason:

Although providing a partial replication of Langer et al.(1978), Folkes takes issue with Langer's assertion that the placebic information is processed "mindlessly". Folkes argues that if the reasons are processed automatically under low consequences conditions, then a poor reason should as effective as a valid one. However she found a that a poor reason (e.g. "because I don't want to wait") was significantly less effective than a valid or placebic one under low consequence conditions.

So the conclusion is: don't just give any reason!

I'm not sure from which book of Cialdini the give-any-reason advice came. If it's from his 1984 Influence, then that could not have covered research that was published (a year) later. Cialdini has a 2001 book with the same title but a different subtitle though; hopefully that's more up-to-date, but I haven't checked.

Here's the actual data from Folke:

All requests were small in the Falke experiments (4 or 5 pages to copy) and also took place at two different locations; her experiment 2 was in the UK, the rest in the US. In Falke's experiments 1-3, she attempted to directly replicate (the small favor) experiment of Lange but with varying questions. Only in experiment 4 were the subjects instructed to think carefully before deciding.

The reason why Falke calls the grating reasons "controllable" is based on the level of volitional control (of the requester) implied in the reason:

Attribution research suggests that one distinction between good and bad excuses is in perceived controllability. An excuse can suggest one is compelled to perform an action or imply volitional control (Weiner, 1980). Lack of control mitigates responsibility for a transgression more than volitional control. Thus, when people ask favors for reasons they cannot control, their requests are more frequently complied with than when reasons for the requested favor are controllable (Barnes, Ickes, & Kidd, 1979; Weiner, 1980). In the copying machine paradigm, requests to go first because of controllable reasons (e.g., "because I don't want to wait") should be complied with less-they do not mitigate responsibility for needing the favor. When a person lacks control over the reason for wanting to go first (e.g., "because I feel really sick"), compliance should be greater.

Finally, Petty and Cacioppo also distinguish some personality factors affecting the result, in particular what they call "need for cognition". Individuals that rated higher on a self-reported measure for this factor had (objectively) more polarized attitudes on an argument than individuals who scored low on this measure.


Study Support

When trying to understand what has been asked of you, underline the key words.

These definitions will help you to understand some of the key words used in the questions/ tasks you will be set during your University studies.

Account for: Give reasons for explain (note: give an account of describe).

Analyse: Break the information into constituent parts examine the relationship between the parts question the information.

Argue: Put the case for or against a view or idea giving evidence for your claims/reasons for or against attempt to influence the reader to accept your view.

Balance: Look at two or more viewpoints or pieces of information give each equal attention look at good and bad points take into account many aspects and give an appropriate weighting to those aspects.

Be critical: Identify what is good and bad about the information and why probe, question, identify inaccuracies or shortcomings in the information estimate the value of the material.

Clarify: Identify the components of an issue/topic/problem/ make the meaning plain remove misunderstandings.

Compare: Look for similarities and differences between perhaps conclude which is preferable implies evaluation.

Conclude/draw conclusions: The end point of your critical thinking what the results of an investigation indicate arrive at a judgement by reasoning.

Contrast: Bring out the differences.

Criticise: Give your judgement on theories or opinions or facts andback this by discussing evidence or reasoning involved.

Define: Give the precise meaning. Examine the different possible or often used definitions.

Demonstrate: Show clearly by giving proof or evidence.

Describe: Give a detailed, full account of the topic.

Determine: Find out something calculate.

Develop an opinion/a view: Decide what you think (based on an argument or evidence).

Discuss: Investigate or examine by argument debate give reason for and against examine the implications of the topic.

Elucidate: Explain and make clear.

Estimate: Calculate judge predict.

Evaluate/weigh up: Appraise the worth of something in the light of its truth or usefulness assess and explain.

Examine: Look at carefully consider.

Explain: Make plain and clear give reasons for.

Give evidence: Provide evidence from your own work or that of others which could be checked by a third party to prove/ justify what you say.

Identify: Point out and describe.

Identify trends: Identify patterns/changes/ movements in certain directions (e.g. over time or across topics/ subjects).

Illustrate: Explain, clarify, make clear by the use of concrete examples.

Infer: Conclude something from facts or reasoning.

Interpret: Expound the meaning make clear and explicit, giving your own judgement.

Justify: Show adequate grounds for decisions, a particular view or conclusions and answer main objections likely to be made to them.

Outline: Give a short description of the main points give the main features or general principles emphasise the structure, leaving out minor details.

Prove: Show that something is true or certain provide strong evidence (and examples) for.

Review: Make a survey examining the subject carefully similar to summarise and evaluate.

State: Present in a brief, clear form.

Summarise: Give a concise account of the chief points of a matter, removing unnecessary detail.

Synthesise: Bring elements together to make a complex whole, draw together or integrate issues (e.g. theories or models can be created by synthesising a number of elements).

Trace: Follow the development of topic from its origin.

It is important to carry out a review of the literature for an assignment because it allows you to acquire an understanding of your topic. You can become aware of the key issues, and relevant research that has already been done relating to your topic and find out the latest information.

Searching, evaluating and selecting from the vast range of published information can be a time-consuming process, so it is important to know how to plan and carry out this task effectively.

A literature search needs to be systematic and focussed &ndash you are not looking to read everything in a broad area, only things that are relevant to your work.

A literature search must also be evaluative - you need to critically assess each reference found to determine if it is worth pursuing and critically read it.

The aim of this guide is to help you to do this. You generally need to work through the following stages.

Define your topic and decide on scope

Clarify the meaning of the topic and particular words, using general or subject specific dictionaries/encyclopaedias if necessary.

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Draw up a list of keywords

Define your topic in terms of keywords to use for searching the various information sources. There are various ways to approach this task from including making lists of words, diagrams or mind maps. Chose a method that works for you.

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Draw up a list of sources/databases to search and carry out your searches

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The Library search engine, Summon, is a quick way to begin your search for subject information and to identify the key sources for your subject. It allows you to search the Library Catalogue, databases, and collections of e-journals and newspaper articles all at the same time. It's a great starting point for your research. However, you may also need to do more detailed searching via the Library Catalogue tab of our the search box, or via individual electronic databases.

Different sources will provide you different information:

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      Keep a record of your searches.

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      • Why was it written? (i.e. what influences/biases do you need to be aware of)
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      • What is the evidence? (i.e. make sure you are not just reading the conclusions and that the author is backing up their statements)
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      Proof Reading

      Imagine you have just finished your dissertation, which is full of original insights, informed by a range of research and with a brilliant argument. However, if you do not read through it afterwards, checking for spelling, grammar and overall presentation, this omission may negatively affect your marks.

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      Spelling and grammar

      Spellcheck on Microsoft Word is a fantastic tool, but it does have weaknesses. Often it can confuse homonyms, such as &lsquobear&rsquo and &lsquobare.&rsquo Similarly, spellcheck may present some unusual brand names as erroneous if it cannot be found in its dictionary. Check that your computer is using the UK version instead of the USA. Some students like to use Grammarly, an Internet based plug-in.

      Techniques to follow

      After you have finished writing, take some time away from your assignment and then come back to it in a few days&rsquo time. You will have a fresher approach and will find it easier to spot errors.

      Printing your assignment out and reading it through line by line will help you see mistakes. Some students like to read from the bottom or read it out loud upwards. Asking friends and family who are not on your degree course to read it through can be useful as they will be able to concentrate your use of English, presentation and structure, rather than focusing on your subject knowledge.

      George Orwell, the famous English author of &lsquoAnimal Farm&rsquo and &lsquo1984,&rsquo had his own rules for improving your writing style. He suggested &lsquonever using a long word when a short one will do.&rsquo Sometimes students believe that if they adopt long words borrowed from their thesaurus, it will impress their lecturer, but actually this may make your writing harder to read. Orwell also advised that &lsquoif it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.&rsquo This will help you follow a simpler, easy to follow mode of writing. (Orwell, G, 1945. Politics and the English Language. London: Penguin Classics.)

      Presentation

      Some lecturers may specify that you submit your work in a certain format, such as Size 12 Times New Roman and double spaced. It is essential that you follow these instructions when they are given. Paragraphs should be between 4-7 lines long, and can be used to introduce a new topic or give the reader time to pause. It has been known for some students to present a wall of text without line breaks, which can be off putting to the reader.

      Think back to the feedback you received for your last assignment. How have you built on the advice given from your last piece of work? It is crucial that you engage with lecturers&rsquo feedback in order to develop as a learner.

      Osmond, A. (2016) Academic Writing and Grammar for Students. 2nd edn. London: Sage.


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      The Theory Of Evolution

      When it comes to evolution one name often comes to mind Charles Darwin. Though he is famously known for his extensive work on various species and the eventual emergence of what we today call the Theory of Evolution, often referred to as Darwinism, he was not the first to think of such a thing.

      Before Darwin there was Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin’s Grandfather. He had ideas behind how species change over time. However, he lacked a definitive concept, and thus had no mechanism to explain how this worked. His ideas also went against the teaching of the church at the time and so, he failed to pursue it.

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      woman-671927 CC0 Public Domain via Pixaby

      10 Steps in Writing

      All of us know what it is like to try to understand something which is not being explained clearly. Or have you ever had an instructor who did teach clearly, but was boring? Or only told you things you already knew? Your job in this essay is to:

      1. Know Your Audience: You can vary the way you write this topic depending on who your audience is. For instance, you can write an essay on “how to shoot a free throw” both for someone who’s never played basketball before and for an experienced player who wants to fine tune her technique. Generally, you will aim for an audience who knows less than you do about that topic or someone who is at your same level but doesn&apost know the specific information you can teach them
      2. Narrow or focus your topic so you can tell about it in depth and give a lot of interesting details.
      3. Tell your reader something he doesn’t already know about this concept. Go beyond 𠇌ommon knowledge."
      4. Give your reader a reason to learn about your concept. Connect this information to something they already know, or give them a definition which either reverses their expectations or gives a new perspective or insight.
      5. Give a clear definition. Explain any unfamiliar terms or special vocabulary. Use comparisons or analogies if appropriate.
      6. Choose an organizing technique which works for your topic. Make sure the introduction and conclusion are linked. The conclusion should not summarize but give a final thought to the audience.
      7. Describe your concept clearly and in a logical sequence. Be careful about transition markers.
      8. Use reliable and accurate sources. If you know a lot about a concept, you can certainly use your own knowledge and experience. However, it also helps to look up the concept online and also use interviews and surveys to help pinpoint what your audience knows and what they need to know. If you know someone who knows more about this concept than you, you can interview them to get information. Moreover, if this person (or you) has special credentials which show they are an expert on this subject, be sure to include that in your essay so that your reader knows your explanation is authoritative.
      9. Research interesting details and information. Sources can be your own observation, personal experience, readings, interviews, research and surveys
      10. Make it interesting by giving vivid detail, using humor, and giving good examples. Draw reader in with title and opening paragraph

      Examples of Sublimation

      Discussing sublimation in theoretical terms can provide a basis for a general understanding of what it is. However, it's hard to grasp the idea completely until you can visualize specific examples of how it works. Here are some scenarios where sublimation might come into play.

      Anger and Aggression

      In most situations, anger and aggression are socially unacceptable, although there are exceptions. While some people do vent their anger often, the consequences often can be extremely negative. To avoid those negative consequences, they may use sublimation to redirect those urges. Here are some examples.

      • Someone has strong urges to cut people. Instead of giving into that aggressive urge, they become a surgeon - a situation where they can cut people and help them rather than harming them.
      • You are extremely angry at someone. Instead of starting an argument with them or doing something harmful to them, you put all your energy into remodeling your house. With every strike of the hammer, you're using the energy of that anger to do something positive.
      • You can't stop thinking about how angry you are with your boss after you were reprimanded at work. Rather than quitting or getting into a shouting match with your boss, you decide to take the long walk to your home after work. By the time you arrive, you're tired, but your anger has decreased substantially.

      • You're so angry that you just feel like punching someone. Instead of punching the first person you see, you go to a gym and sign up for boxing lessons or join a football team, where your aggression can be seen as a positive trait.

      Unacceptable Sexual Urges

      Sexual urges, of course, aren't always unacceptable. If you're in a relationship, they're considered normal. They could lead to developing a closer bond as well as bringing new life into the world. However, many sexual urges are considered deviant or otherwise harmful. Here are some ways people might sublimate these urges.

      • Say you're going out of town to a convention for your work. You have the urge to cheat on your spouse while you're away. You might channel those energies into learning more about your industry, expanding your network of business associates, or seeing the sights in a new city.
      • You have strong sexual urges that, deep down, you feel are inappropriate. Through sublimation, you transform those sexual impulses into becoming an artist. Your mind protects you from following through with your disturbing urges to protect you from seeing yourself as a sexual deviant.
      • You feel like having sex constantly, but your promiscuousness is putting you at risk of sexually transmitted diseases or unwanted pregnancy. So, you use that energy in constructive ways that are not necessarily related in content to those urges. For example, you might take up running and start training for a marathon.

      Other Distressing Feelings

      Sublimation can also help to transform other negative feelings into positive paths. The following examples show other ways sublimation works.

      • Your boyfriend or girlfriend, cruelly, leaves you. You're heartbroken. However, instead of being overwhelmed by your sadness and despair, you take up art, writing, gardening, or home decorating to create something beautiful.
      • You've been permanently injured in a car accident. Rather than dwelling on feelings that life is unfair, you get involved with a traffic safety organization. Thus, you turn your negative feelings into positive action.
      • You feel frustrated at work because you don't have a lot of control over what you do each day. So, you work hard to get a promotion that puts you in a position of power. Or, you go out and start your own business where you're the boss.

      Is Sublimation Good or Bad?

      Sublimation in psychology is a neutral concept, neither good nor bad. It's just a description of something that can happen to humans. There are two things to remember about defense mechanisms like sublimation. First, they usually happen on an unconscious level. That means you may have little control over them. Second, defense mechanisms falsify reality, either by distorting or transforming your view of what's real.

      Although it might seem that having a false sense of reality is to be avoided, it can help you get through your darkest days. In some cases, though, good feelings can be sublimated if they seem too big to endure. So, although sublimation is a positive thing in many cases, there are times when it could rob you of experiencing the ecstatic emotions. Still, Anna Freud and others have classified sublimation as one of the most mature defense mechanisms.

      Therapy and Sublimation?

      As mentioned above, for most of us, sublimation is something that happens subconsciously &ndash without us being aware of it. As a result, sublimation can be as much a problem as the emotions it is burying. Alternatively, therapists can help you actively use sublimation to help you deal with other issues.

      First, you may want to hold onto the energy that's coming from those unacceptable urges. Feelings themselves are never inappropriate as long as you choose appropriate ways of dealing with them. So, it isn't wrong or bad to feel the power of those emotions. Once you know what feelings are behind your behaviors, you can allow yourself to experience those feelings without acting directly on them.

      If you have sad feelings, you can recognize that and intentionally choose to write poems or draw pictures that express them. The question is: is this really sublimation? After all, it's happening on a conscious level. And, you're still well-grounded in reality. The truth is that it doesn't matter how you classify these activities. What matters is that you put those energies to work to do something productive rather than destructive.

      On the other hand, if you have strong urges but don&rsquot understand why, therapy or counseling can help you recognize the true feelings or urges behind the sublimation. For instance, you may have a strong desire to paint every waking moment. Yet, you don't know why. By talking to a therapist, you can find out why you have that urge. Then, you can resolve it more completely.

      How to Deal With Unacceptable Urges And Feelings

      Are you troubled by disturbing urges or distressing emotions? If so, you may be able to find a way to resolve them by putting those energies to a more helpful purpose. You don't have to deny that you have those feelings, but sublimation can help you stay within the bounds of what is socially acceptable and acceptable to you.

      However, unless you use sublimation naturally and unconsciously, you may have trouble understanding how to make it work. Or, you may want to choose a different way to deal with the conflict between your urges and your ideals. Fortunately, help is available .

      Reaching Out with BetterHelp You can go to a mental health center in your local area to help with managing your urges. If you prefer the comfort and convenience of online therapy, you can talk to a licensed and professional counselor through BetterHelp.

      Communication is facilitated by secure video and voice calls as well as private messenger rooms.

      While remote help with mental and emotional health is promising, it can also be a tad unsettling if you aren&rsquot used to the idea. Fortunately, people have gone before you and left promising testimonials:

      Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

      What does sublimation mean?

      Freud's psychoanalytic theory defined sublimation as a process by which negative urges, drives, and behaviors are channeled into more socially acceptable behaviors. Examples of sublimation are channeling inappropriate urges into positive behaviors like exercise, therapy, or other physical activities.

      What are the defense mechanisms in psychology?

      According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, defense mechanisms are built-in mental defenses and behaviors that are activated unconsciously by outside circumstances. Freud believed that sublimation is a defense mechanism that can be activated either consciously or unconsciously in order to channel lower drives into high physical activities. Scientific research supports experimental evidence for sublimation and higher physical activities.

      Is sublimation a defense mechanism?

      According to personality and social psychology, it is believed that sublimation is a built-in psychological defense mechanism. Sigmund Freud defined sublimation as the process of replacing undesirable desires and behaviors with higher physical activities as an alternative to acting out socially unacceptable behaviors.

      What is a real-life example of sublimation?

      Real-life examples of sublimation (according to the cultural psychological approach) occur when people make conscious or unconscious decisions to replace unacceptable behaviors with more socially acceptable behaviors. If someone is feeling angry or violent towards someone, instead of acting out in an aggressive manner, sublimation is a mature way to resolve the issue. Going for a run or exercising is a higher physical activity than fighting or arguing.

      Can you sublimate over sublimation?

      Based on interpersonal psychoanalysis, Freud believed that sublimation could be implemented at will using a psychological approach. Social psychology has also shown evidence to this effect that dog tails Freud's sublimation theory for eliminating bad behavior.

      What is the opposite of sublimation?

      Freud's sublimation theory is based on cultural psychological factors that frown on behaviors seen as socially undesirable. Examples of sublimation opposites are arguing, lying, violence, and sexually deviant behaviors outlined in personality and social psychology. These behaviors are the opposite of socially acceptable behaviors that include physical activities, scientific, artistic, and creative pursuits. There is evidence for sublimation tactics successfully diffusing potentially disastrous situations in social psychology.

      Can you sublimate on anything?

      The process of sublimation can be applied in a variety of situations. This is especially true in sublimation culture and creativity pursuits where people engage in creative behaviors to keep from engaging in harmful and undesirable acts. This idea falls in line with Freud's view stating that sublimation can be activated at will. In cases of interpersonal psychoanalysis where sublimation was used the use of sublimation was a sign that the situation would likely have a better outcome.

      What causes ghosting in Sublimation?

      Ghosting in a psychological approach to a defense mechanism that requires a complete disconnect from a person or situation. In psychology and sublimation culture, sublimation can be looked at as a safe alternative to engaging in negative behaviors as an example of interpersonal psychoanalysis. In the case of "ghosting", a person who is sublimating may purposely focus their psychic energy on positive pursuits to keep themselves from acting out negative behavior patterns.

      What is the meaning for sublimation?

      &ldquoSublimation&rdquo in its many different uses, generally refers to the change of a thing in appearance but not necessarily in character.

      In psychology, it means to direct undesirable thought and impulses into productive outlets.

      What is sublimation in mental health?

      In mental health, sublimation means directing undesirable, unproductive or dangerous desires into acceptable and practical actions.

      What is sublimation and examples?

      Common examples of sublimation include creating visual art to express and explore interests in safe ways, expressing thoughts and feelings through writing, and expending pent up energy through physical activity.

      What is an example of sublimation in psychology?

      A classic example of sublimation in psychology might be taking up boxing or wrestling as a way of getting out pent up anger in a safe and controlled environment.

      What is a real life example of sublimation?

      One of the darkest &ndash but best preserved and studied &ndash historical cases of sublimation is that of the Marquis se Sade, a nineteenth-century French Aristocrat whose name gives us the term &ldquosadism.&rdquo

      De Sade&rsquos sexual impulses were so strange and harmful that he was imprisoned for them and later spent time in an insane asylum. During this time when he was, at least largely, incapable of acting on these impulses, he prodigiously wrote disturbing poems and novels detailing his sexual fantasies.

      How is sublimation done?

      Sublimation takes place any time that an undesirable or dangerous impulse or desire is expressed through an acceptable or productive outlet. It can take place subconsciously or consciously and is a favorite tool of psychologists and counselors.

      What is the cause of sublimation?

      Whether conscious or subconscious, sublimation is caused by the need to act on an impulse or desire with the understanding that it cannot be acted on as it exists.

      How do you sublimate anger?

      How you might go about sublimating anger depends on where your anger comes from and what sorts of things you enjoy.

      If your anger comes from frustration at work, you might express it productivity motivated by the desire to get a promotion &ndash or a new job.

      What are 3 examples of sublimation?

      • Hitting a heavy-bag when you&rsquore mad
      • Writing poetry when you&rsquore sad
      • Creating art when you&rsquore anxious.

      Conclusion
      Whatever you choose to do, the most important thing is to address your unacceptable urges responsibly and beneficially. When you find the best way to resolve these inner conflicts, you can have a more peaceful, fulfilling life.


      All the Yes points:

      Yes because…

      Whilst subjects such as Maths and Science may seem more important in a world that relies upon workers in the financial industry and doctors, History as a subject as less of a priority. However, History offers more than an update of past events. Pupils/students learn how to formulate arguments, compare and analyse sources, and learn about cultural differences and changes. Additionally, knoeldege aquired from History lessons may help with other topics. For instance, learning about a war or dictatorship might provide background knowledge which assists the pupil in understanding novel in English Literature studies. Young people need an all round eductaion in order to progres through the various challenges life brings. If history is not neccessary why do we have museums? History offers knowledge about some of the greatest and most influential people from various time periods. Knowledge is always neccessary for progression.

      We cannot pick and choose which subjects to learn about and which ones to ignore. History is closely interlinked with many other areas of subjects, and gives us greater insight into the world right now. Also, if we only concentrate on what currently exists and naively turn a blind eye to our past, then aren’t we disregarding the work of our forefathers? History is as important as any other subject, and should not be disregarded in any way.

      No because…


      Social Change: Meaning, Types and Characteristics

      When change in social structure, social order, social values, certain customs and traditions, socio- cultural norms, code of conduct, way of conducting oneself in the society, standards, attitudes, customs and traditions of the society and related factors take place, it is said that there is social change.

      When there is social change, the process of socialization also changes accordingly. The individual who is an active member of the society becomes an agent and target of social change. He brings social changes and also is influenced by such changes.

      In a particular period or after a gap of several years each and every member of the universe is subjected to face social change. A particular social order does not continue for several decades, say hundred years or more. There is bound to be some change.

      In a particular period people of the society are guided by certain rules and regulations, customs, traditions values and beliefs, the way every one has to manage and guide himself, people have to manage their style of living, their work, business, profession and conduct. Individuals of the society, young and old are guided by these rules and belief.

      Socialization of children is also influenced by these frame of reference. The DOS and Donts of the society, as we know influence the process of socialization. But after a certain period, due to evolution or revolution we find slight or remarkable change in the above aspects of social life.

      In some cases, these changes may be slow or fast, may be a matter of degree or kind. In some cases it may be substantial and drastic while in other cases it may gradual and of low order.

      Type of Social Change:

      From the ensuing discussion it appears that social change can be categorised to two types:

      (1) Evolutionary Social Change

      (2) Revolutionary Social Change.

      (1) Evolutionary Social Changes:

      Evolutionary changes occur in course of a long period slowly and gradually and through evolutionary process. Such changes are not very drastic or remarkable. They proceed gradually like the process of conditioning and people learn to adjust with such changes gradually.

      During our school and college days we were wearing saree and nobody then could dream of a married any a women wearing even Salwar and Kameez. We also used to put veil on our head, after marriage. I remember after my marriage in 1960,I used to put veil on my head for 35 years while in job and at home as well.

      But this system has changed gradually. Now what about girls, married women is Orissa also wear Salwar Kameez, various other western dress and normally do not put veil on their head. This practice has been gradual and it has also been accepted by parents, relations in laws and other members of the society.

      So much so that when today a girl attends, college wearing a saree others around look at her with raised eyebrows. Even some of her friends start joking at her calling her ‘Chudaa’. means, old fashioned.

      Using lipstick and going to beauty parlours were considered as taboos so for women in Orissa some decades back. But now even college going girls including many women teachers go to school and colleges using various kinds of make-up. This is not considered a taboo now.

      Gradually people have adjusted to such evolutionary changes may be due to urbanization and western influence. Some years back while I was in Government job and went to Delhi to attend a meeting, one of my lady colleagues who was also attending the same meeting wanted to go to a beauty parlour on our wayback to hotel.

      She also asked me to join her. But she was astonished when I told her that I have never visited a beauty parlour even when I was young and I would not like to do it now.

      Though I as a member of the society have accommodated to certain social changes which I consider beneficial or may be not harmful, I do not accommodate to those changes which are harmful for our society for our social values, culture and finally our conduct in the society. Still many people are there is the society who follow me.

      People are able to adjust better with evolutionary social changes as the process is slow and gradual and hence easy to adjust. We also find today many male members wearing pants and shirts while sitting in Puja which was not acceptable several years back.

      Use of Jeans and T. shirts in place of half pants and shirts have become common sights in schools and colleges, in public life and members of the society have gradually coped with this.

      Even old and aged people of India are now found wearing such westernised dresses without any conflict or guilt feeling, since society has gradually accepted it. Similarly women going for higher education, studying in coeducational institutions, do join army, navy and airforce, for becoming pilots, going to space to join politics, doing various jobs which were earlier meant for men only.

      Doing various jobs outside the domestic front, which were not acceptable several decades back for women is now accepted. Husbands in Indian society doing domestic chores which were not acceptable hundred years back have become common practices to-day in Indian societies. This has been possible due to gradual, evolutionary social change. This change has not occurred instantly, suddenly, abruptly.

      Earlier many people did not pay tax, but now people have developed the mind set to pay tax considering it as legal and are paying tax voluntarily. These are simple examples of important evolutionary changes which occur gradually within sufficient time perspective.

      (2) Revolutionary Changes:

      It is the opposite of evolutionary change. When the changes in various sectors of our social system occur suddenly, drastically and sufficiently so as to differentiate it from gradual, slow change, it is called revolutionary social change.

      The change in other words is great in degree, remarkable. The changes are such that they change the whole social order and the course or style of living, conduct and concept of do’s and donts. They are a matter of kind which occur due to some movement, revolution war, rapid technological changes, due to sudden change in social events.

      They occur very quickly and within a short period or short duration. Let us take some examples. The changes in social structure and social system which occurred after various famous revolutions like the French, the Russian, the Chinese and the American Revolution and more recently the revolutionary changes that occurred or are still occurring in various Afro-Asian countries occur due to revolutions and movements India’s freedom movement or revolution for independence from ‘British Raj’ is a case of revolutionary movement.

      Besides India’s small or big movements to eradicate the evils of colonialism, caste and class system economic disparity, tribal life style, superstition, to fight against suppression and oppression, are valid examples. Introduction of widow marriage, abolition of child marriage, and Satidaha Pratha, acceptance of intercaste and inter religion marriage are to some extent examples of revolutionary change.

      In short, those remarkable and drastic changes which occur in the social system of a country or society in a very short span of time are possible due to revolution and movements big or small. Such drastic changes not only change the life style of people in a society, they also transform the relationship between individual across countries including within the countries.

      Various cross cultural studies lead to support this observation. Attitude change is an important example of the effect of social change which may happen either due to evolutionary or revolutionary change.

      Because of various social changes attitude of people also change towards the social system. It is therefore rightly viewed that man is not only an agent, but also a target of social change. In short, man is indispensable in bringing social changes as well as is influenced by the same social changes.

      He makes or changes the society where he lives and is again influenced by such a changed society. Social activities who fight against dowry system and are able to pass a law in that regard are also influenced by the abolition of dowry system. When their sons and daughters get married they cannot claim or give dowry.

      Characteristics of Social Change:

      When either evolutionary or revolutionary changes take place in the social system one lives,, observable changes take place in the social values, customs, traditions, cultural heritage, age old beliefs, style of living, dress, attitude, superstitions stereotype, way of conducting oneself in the society, process of socialization and overall behaviour of its members.

      Thus the chief characteristics of social change is the change in various areas of the social system where man is born, grown and dies. Such changes influence his attitude towards various stimuli, values, faiths and beliefs, his emotions and sentiments, his moral and religious standard, his conscience and super ago.

      The characteristics and nature of social change influence a mans Id, ego and super ego, his entire psycho physical system, his mental and physical characteristics, and his overall nature, conduct, response and behaviour in the environment in which he moves, such as his family, neighbourghood, his response to social members, and how he reacts to them.

      When remarkable difference is observed in ones attitude towards widow marriage, towards dishonesty, towards various cultural conditions, towards unwed motherhood, single parenting, divorce, infanticitis, family planning, girl child, legalized abortion and population control, we say that social change has occurred.

      Further such changes in the attitude and values of a person should be more or less durable, relatively permanent and whole heartedy acceptable and practised by a majority of the society. A social change must continue for a considerable period. When certain social orders are “out” and in their place new or alternative social orders arc “in”, when such changes are perceivable we say that there has been social change.

      However such acceptances of the change by a few members would not be called social change. If a few accept the changes and majority oppose it, it gradually disappears and people will again go for the old values and customs. Sometimes it is found than when majority people experience that the changed social system does more harm than good, they again go back to the old social order.

      Ayurvedic medicine and yoga which were used and practiced by most people during the ancient time and were given up in between have now again become very popular and people are again taking their help to get cured and keep oneself sound and fit.

      Man being the prime motivator of social change, social change cannot be given shape without the human being. Majority of the people ultimately have to conform the social change for its continuity and durability.

      Factors Influencing Social Change:

      Social change do not occur automatically. Certain factors do influence social change.

      They are discussed below briefly:

      (i) Social Movement and Social Revolution:

      Pages of world history records several important social movements and revolutions such as French revolution, American revolution, Russian revolution, Chinese revolution and so on.

      A social movement originates when either people are discontent and unhappy with the existing social system or social order, when people try to establish a new order of life or a new style of living or when the social system is established in a condition of unrest.

      According to Blumer (1946) social movements derive their motive from dissatisfaction with the current form of life and also from wishes and hopes for a new scheme or system of living. According to Turner and Killian (1957) a social movement is a collective acting with some continuity to promote changes or resist a change in the society or group of which it is a part.

      Then, what social movement exactly means? A social movement refers to collective efforts to establish a new order of life which ultimately brings changes in the existing social system of that society, state or country.

      Movements organised by minority groups initially may be accepted and practised by people collectively. Heberice (1951) holds that a social movement basically attempts to bring about fundamental changes in the social order particularly in the basic field of property and labour relationships.

      Currently the law to properly rights to Hindu Women has changed, specially due to the active efforts of various women organisations in India who are pushing their movements for women empowerment. Women in India and in many parts of the word arc still considered as socially disadvantaged and economically weak.

      They are still exploited by their male counterparts and even powerful women members at the domestic front. Domestic violence has been rampant in India as surveys show. Therefore various women organisations have started movements to give women their right to property, right to work, right to earn right to birth right to economic independence, right to education and finally right to live dignifiedly.

      The repeated and frequent rise in social movements in a country hints at the discontentment and unhappiness with the existing social order. The purpose of such revolutions is to bring changes in the existing social order which are considered evil and discriminative by the members of the society.

      Cameron is of the opinion that a social movement occurs when a fairly large number of people band together in order to alter or support some portion of the exiting culture or social order.

      Human Rights movements among the African-Americans in the United States serve as an example. In India even several Human Rights Organisation are starting movements to change the existing attitude of the higher socio-economic groups towards their lower counter parts.

      Similarly the right to information is a kind of human right which has been constitutionally legalised in India and abroad serves a fine example of change in social order and social system.

      Keeping in view the purpose of social change Sherif and Sherif have given the following comprehensive definition of social movement.

      According to them A social movement consists of a pattern of attempts over time prompted by a state of common unrest, discontent or aspiration shared by large number of individuals to bring about change in, to establish, the maintain or to suppress a definite scheme of human relations and values through pronouncement, literature, meetings and direct collective action, (e.g., rallies, boycotts, marches, strikes, insurrection etc.).

      A social movement may be initiated by suffering, tortured, neglected and humiliated persons who are whole heartedly dissatisfied with the existing social order. Initially the pattern of social movement erratic, being half hazard and unorganised may be started by a few.

      But gradually over time, it takes a concrete shape and large numbers of people come forward to participate. Subsequently, it becomes more organised and coordinated. It has a formal leader irrespective of the fact whether finally it is successful or not.

      The Narmada Dam Movement is a small social movement which till to-day has not taken a successful shape. But no doubt, it is a social movement initiated for the benefit of some farmers of the area who have been affected directly or indirectly by the construction of the dam.

      This project as common man visualizes has its advantages as well as disadvantages. But when advantages are less than disadvantages a social movement becomes difficult to be successful.

      (ii) Common Motivation:

      In order to make a social movement successful there is a need to coordinate local attempts and to make a comprehensive formulation of the causes of discontentment, the purpose and forms of action to achieve the goal. A social movement breaks down without a leader with leadership qualities and its success also depends upon the co-ordination and cooperation of the affected members.

      A social movement which is the basic cause behind social change stands on its motivational base.

      There must be a single motive common to all participants on which the social movement can stand firmly such as causes like woman’s right to vote and property, woman’s empowerment, widespread dissatisfaction of landless people, defects in the existing land reform rules, dissatisfaction over inadequate working conditions, the right to information or civil rights, equal opportunity to every citizen irrespective of caste, creed, community or property, etc.

      (iii) Common Need:

      Common motivation originates from common need. When a particular social movement includes several spheres of living like change in working condition, right to vote, right to earn, right to information etc. it will fight for broad changes in social system either through evolutionary or revolutionary method.

      Interested participants of the social movements are usually those who are directly affected by the existing social order. But sometimes social and human rights activities take leading part in social movements without being directly affected.

      Revolutionary movements help immensely in achieving social change quickly. The scope and rate of social changes are culminated and accentuated through such revolutions which involve the need of large number of people, has a firm and dedicated leader who can fight in an organised and coordinated manner.

      Need for social change is a powerful factor of influencing and bringing social change. If there is no need to be dissatisfied with the existing social system or social order, an evolutionary or revolutionary social movement cannot start.

      Just as need is the mother of invention and motivation, similarly it is the mother of all social, political and religious movements. Thus need works as a powerful cause of social change. The need may be of various types like, economic, political, religious, social, psychological or biological.

      The need based on the dissatisfaction over caste system, economic disparity, discrimination in social states, discrimination in facilities available to various racial, communal religions linguistic and social economic groups, backward classes, minority groups, and discrimination over reservation policy leading to dissatisfaction among the affected group.

      A strong need or needs based on proper realization, proper planning and proper organisation, work as the back bone of any social movement either major or minor. If the need is not value oriented and is weak, the group will gradually disintegrate and the movement will finally lack cooperation and strength.

      Hence need for social change is one of the powerful factors which goads the movement towards the direction of achieving the goal or ideology. A common need helps in inducing a common motivation which further pushes the desire to take forward the social revolution or movements as the case may be.

      A women who has experienced the pangs of suffering and evil effects of child marriage may start a movement against child marriage.

      Similarly, a leader of the landless labourers who himself is landless and has suffered due to this disadvantage, would feel the greater need of a movement for allotment of land to needy landless labourers. The stronger is the need, the greater is the motive for a social change and the higher is the success rate.

      (iv) Long Standing Suffering due to Suppression and Oppression:

      This factor influences a lot any social movement aimed at social change based on a single or number of issues.

      Suppression by the higher socio economic class of the lower socioeconomic group, suppression of the low caste by the high caste, by the high rank employees of its low rank counterparts, rejection of the genuine demands of the various socially economically and psychologically disadvantaged class, and many more problems of a caste and class based society, racial and communal feeling produce the urge for social change.

      People who have been suppressed from generation to generation initially tolerate and remain silent. But gradually they revolt when their limit of tolerance is crossed. At such a cross road some people start a movement and provide leadership.

      They discuss with others of the same group having similar needs and form a group. Gradually the number increases as more and more people join the band. The movement becomes more organised, strong and collective and finally takes the shape of a social movement.

      Many people of Africa, India and other Asian countries including various tribes who have been subjected to a lot of humiliation, prejudice, torture and inhumanity at least open their month and start revolting like a volcanic irruption.

      (v) Impact of Communication:

      Many social changes are influenced by various electronic and mass medias like TV, Radio, news paper etc. These agents highlight the woes and sufferings of needy people and encourage a change in the social order. People who read papers, listen to Radio or view television people who are educated are influenced. They actively or passively directly or indirectly participate in the process of social change.

      These medias make the common man aware of their problems, their rights and demands. Their clouded mind is lighted through their information. Modern day information technology has helped a lot in this regard.

      These knowledge’s and information’s provoke them to join a movement or fight for their cause wholeheartedly. Through the mass media people come to know what is happening where and accordingly they also start joining the band.

      Similarly through participation in group discussions, person to person or face to face communication and contact a lot of information is received. The feedback through this technique is so strong that people are highly motivated to fight for a social change or accept it.

      Though man is a target of social change, he is not however, a passive agent in any of the social changes. A social change to be durable must need the active participation and genuine willingness to participate is the decision making process. Otherwise the social change will be temporary and mingle or fade with time.

      It cannot sustain if force is used to accept social change. People are to be convinced through communication that such a social change is necessary for his better standard of living and good social, moral and emotional life. All social changes to be durable need the involvement of man himself, need changes in the participant himself, in his outlook, attitude, commitments identifications, realizations etc. It a man preaches one thing and practices another social change will not be possible.

      The man has first to follow and implement the yardsticks of social change on himself and his family, before trying to apply it on others. This can be achieved through various means of communication which can convince him to change his attitude and outlook. A person who speaks against dowry system.

      Should follow the same at the time of his son’s or daughter’s marriage. In other words he should not claim dowry from the bride’s parents at the time of his son’s marriage or give dowry to his daughter.

      (vi) Education:

      Notwithstanding the fact that education is a means of communication, education is discussed here separately as a means of social change because of its specific importance. Educated people are more conscious and aware of the positive and negative points of any social system.

      Since education provides knowledge and knowledge increases mans outlook as well as rationality and judgement, education acts as a very powerful force of social change. With the rise in the percentage of educated people in the population it is seen that people have been more conscious of the social evils and are fighting for a change. Hence the importance of education cannot be under estimated is social change.

      (vii) Technological Changes:

      Technological changes including various inventions also influence social change. Urbanisation and work culture etc. are influenced by a technological society. In the 21st century when man is entering the space huge and making huge technological advances, the social order of that country is bound to change.

      Technological advances do influence the life style, way of living, conduct and day-to-day behaviour of a person becomes more urbanised than traditional and more complex than simple. His needs, desire and life style change suddenly. Under such circumstances he experiences the urgent need for a social change.

      It has been noticed that in many Western and advanced countries like US, UK, Russia, China, German and Japan various technological changes have brought huge and drastic transformation is social life.

      Technological advances have made work easier, life luxurious and have pumped enough money to have a different life style. Even in Indian societies today we find a remarkable difference in the social life compared to what was a few decades back.

      Consequently, in various big cities of India today it has become a wide practice by affluent youths to go to pubs, night clubs, parities and dancing sessions. They try to enjoy life through these ways which were considered a taboo two three decades back. Of course in many conservative societies in urban areas in India, these practices are still considered unacceptable by our culture.

      Now a days therefore everywhere big cities are doing roaring business by opening night clubs, pubs and even beauty parlours. Even attitude of parents have changed towards those life styles, conduct and dress which were considered taboo and antisocial earlier. Technological advances make life more easy with the use of modern gadgets and hence people get enough time to engage themselves in other activities.


      "Contrast The Major Characteristics Of The Following Personality Theories Also Illustrate How Each Theory Is Applied To The Understanding Of Consumer Behaviour In Your Answer" Essays and Research Papers

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      1. Marketing Is an Effective Way of Engaging Customers

      It’s important for your business to engage its customers. Marketing is a tool to keep the conversation going.

      Engaging customers is different from pushing your offers. Engaging involves furnishing your customers with relevant information about your products and your business as well. It’s all about creating fresh content.

      Tell your customers what they don’t know. Let it be interesting and worth their time.

      Social media is one of the best platforms where you can engage your customers. Some organizations use short videos and other humor-laden tricks to engage their customer base.

      By engaging your customers, marketing gives them a sense of belonging.


      The Theory Of Evolution

      When it comes to evolution one name often comes to mind Charles Darwin. Though he is famously known for his extensive work on various species and the eventual emergence of what we today call the Theory of Evolution, often referred to as Darwinism, he was not the first to think of such a thing.

      Before Darwin there was Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin’s Grandfather. He had ideas behind how species change over time. However, he lacked a definitive concept, and thus had no mechanism to explain how this worked. His ideas also went against the teaching of the church at the time and so, he failed to pursue it.

      Also in the midst of Darwin’s time there was Jean Baptiste Lamark. Lamark also proposed an idea similar to Erasmus, suggesting that species change over time to better themselves, but he added a purpose to such change, stating that they were driven by necessity.

      The Theory of Evolution is concrete concept that connects cognitive mechanisms to adaptive properties of various organisms.

      What all and almost every theory behind evolution fails to do is explain things in the sense that they may be a by-product of an adaptation such as behavioral and psychological traits in an organism. The theory does well to explain and define things with current functionality and purpose, however it does not address the extra bits and pieces that come along with it.

      In this chapter we will interpret, explain and define an actual evolutionary adaptation from evolutionary by products exaptation and a spandrel.


      All the Yes points:

      Yes because…

      Whilst subjects such as Maths and Science may seem more important in a world that relies upon workers in the financial industry and doctors, History as a subject as less of a priority. However, History offers more than an update of past events. Pupils/students learn how to formulate arguments, compare and analyse sources, and learn about cultural differences and changes. Additionally, knoeldege aquired from History lessons may help with other topics. For instance, learning about a war or dictatorship might provide background knowledge which assists the pupil in understanding novel in English Literature studies. Young people need an all round eductaion in order to progres through the various challenges life brings. If history is not neccessary why do we have museums? History offers knowledge about some of the greatest and most influential people from various time periods. Knowledge is always neccessary for progression.

      We cannot pick and choose which subjects to learn about and which ones to ignore. History is closely interlinked with many other areas of subjects, and gives us greater insight into the world right now. Also, if we only concentrate on what currently exists and naively turn a blind eye to our past, then aren’t we disregarding the work of our forefathers? History is as important as any other subject, and should not be disregarded in any way.

      No because…


      Study Support

      When trying to understand what has been asked of you, underline the key words.

      These definitions will help you to understand some of the key words used in the questions/ tasks you will be set during your University studies.

      Account for: Give reasons for explain (note: give an account of describe).

      Analyse: Break the information into constituent parts examine the relationship between the parts question the information.

      Argue: Put the case for or against a view or idea giving evidence for your claims/reasons for or against attempt to influence the reader to accept your view.

      Balance: Look at two or more viewpoints or pieces of information give each equal attention look at good and bad points take into account many aspects and give an appropriate weighting to those aspects.

      Be critical: Identify what is good and bad about the information and why probe, question, identify inaccuracies or shortcomings in the information estimate the value of the material.

      Clarify: Identify the components of an issue/topic/problem/ make the meaning plain remove misunderstandings.

      Compare: Look for similarities and differences between perhaps conclude which is preferable implies evaluation.

      Conclude/draw conclusions: The end point of your critical thinking what the results of an investigation indicate arrive at a judgement by reasoning.

      Contrast: Bring out the differences.

      Criticise: Give your judgement on theories or opinions or facts andback this by discussing evidence or reasoning involved.

      Define: Give the precise meaning. Examine the different possible or often used definitions.

      Demonstrate: Show clearly by giving proof or evidence.

      Describe: Give a detailed, full account of the topic.

      Determine: Find out something calculate.

      Develop an opinion/a view: Decide what you think (based on an argument or evidence).

      Discuss: Investigate or examine by argument debate give reason for and against examine the implications of the topic.

      Elucidate: Explain and make clear.

      Estimate: Calculate judge predict.

      Evaluate/weigh up: Appraise the worth of something in the light of its truth or usefulness assess and explain.

      Examine: Look at carefully consider.

      Explain: Make plain and clear give reasons for.

      Give evidence: Provide evidence from your own work or that of others which could be checked by a third party to prove/ justify what you say.

      Identify: Point out and describe.

      Identify trends: Identify patterns/changes/ movements in certain directions (e.g. over time or across topics/ subjects).

      Illustrate: Explain, clarify, make clear by the use of concrete examples.

      Infer: Conclude something from facts or reasoning.

      Interpret: Expound the meaning make clear and explicit, giving your own judgement.

      Justify: Show adequate grounds for decisions, a particular view or conclusions and answer main objections likely to be made to them.

      Outline: Give a short description of the main points give the main features or general principles emphasise the structure, leaving out minor details.

      Prove: Show that something is true or certain provide strong evidence (and examples) for.

      Review: Make a survey examining the subject carefully similar to summarise and evaluate.

      State: Present in a brief, clear form.

      Summarise: Give a concise account of the chief points of a matter, removing unnecessary detail.

      Synthesise: Bring elements together to make a complex whole, draw together or integrate issues (e.g. theories or models can be created by synthesising a number of elements).

      Trace: Follow the development of topic from its origin.

      It is important to carry out a review of the literature for an assignment because it allows you to acquire an understanding of your topic. You can become aware of the key issues, and relevant research that has already been done relating to your topic and find out the latest information.

      Searching, evaluating and selecting from the vast range of published information can be a time-consuming process, so it is important to know how to plan and carry out this task effectively.

      A literature search needs to be systematic and focussed &ndash you are not looking to read everything in a broad area, only things that are relevant to your work.

      A literature search must also be evaluative - you need to critically assess each reference found to determine if it is worth pursuing and critically read it.

      The aim of this guide is to help you to do this. You generally need to work through the following stages.

      Define your topic and decide on scope

      Clarify the meaning of the topic and particular words, using general or subject specific dictionaries/encyclopaedias if necessary.

      If the subject area/topic is too general you may need to choose a specific aspect of it otherwise there will be too much literature for you to read and evaluate. Always check with your lecturers what they are expecting you to cover in the assignment and whether they have set you any parameters to work within.

      Draw up a list of keywords

      Define your topic in terms of keywords to use for searching the various information sources. There are various ways to approach this task from including making lists of words, diagrams or mind maps. Chose a method that works for you.

      In order to make your search as comprehensive as possible, you should think about the following:

      • Words that may be used as alternatives for your topic (synonyms) e.g. 'staff or employees' or 'work or employment.
      • Alternative spellings, particularly American ones, e.g. 'labour or labor'.
      • Possible truncations e.g. manage* will retrieve manage(ment), manage(rs) and manage(rial).
      • Broader and narrower terms
      • Layman terms and technical terms

      Look at ways to link your keywords. Boolean searching is the name given to the method of searching that uses the words AND, OR and NOT as operators to link keywords in a logical way to include or exclude certain terms.

      OR is a good technique to use when there are different ways of expressing the same term, for example

      "heart attack" OR "Myocardial infarction"

      If you have a phrase and you want the search engine to treat it as a phrase, the general rule is to enclose it in speech marks, for example "global warming".

      Set limits to your search

      Set limits to your search, for example:

      • Publication date - how far back do you want to search?
      • Range - what types of publication or documentation do you wish to include? Do you want to include newspaper articles, data sources, statistics for example?
      • Geographical - do you want to limit your search to material relating to a particular country or other geographical area?

      Draw up a list of sources/databases to search and carry out your searches

      Now that you know the subject areas you want to find information on, you can see which sources will contain information on these topics. Sources may be print-based or electronic There are many subject-specific guides to resources in the Library and on our website. As well as providing information about how to obtain material relevant to your subject, they supply links to some of the resources increasingly available electronically.

      The Library search engine, Summon, is a quick way to begin your search for subject information and to identify the key sources for your subject. It allows you to search the Library Catalogue, databases, and collections of e-journals and newspaper articles all at the same time. It's a great starting point for your research. However, you may also need to do more detailed searching via the Library Catalogue tab of our the search box, or via individual electronic databases.

      Different sources will provide you different information:

      • Instructional books &ndash these are books that take you step-by-step through how to do something.
      • Textbooks- these contain the principles of a subject area and will be central to you learning your topics
      • Monographs - these cover a subject area in great detail
      • Edited books &ndash Each chapter is written by different experts in the area.
      • Reference books &ndash these contain useful facts or information on a specific topic, such as encyclopaedias, dictionaries, indexes etc.
      • Academic/Scholarly journals: These are written by researchers at universities/centres and contain the results of their research. They are written to be read by other experts and contain high quality information
        • Easy ways to spot academic journals:
          • Reference list at the end
          • Credentials of authors listed
          • Word &lsquoJournal&rsquo in the title (not always the case)
          • Split into sections (Introduction, Methodology etc)
          • Similar length to a book chapter

          Keep a record of your searches.

          An essential part of literature searching is keeping accurate, consistent and correct records.

          Record all useful references. The useful references should be recorded from print-based sources or marked and downloaded from electronic databases. A detailed record of everything useful you find will enable you to provide an accurate bibliography at the end of your project.

          Review progress

          It is important to carry out a review of your progress after an initial search.

          Have you found material that is likely to be relevant to your topic? If there seems to be too much or too little, you may need to redefine your topic - and repeat the process. Evaluate what you have found in terms of relevance, reliability and usefulness. It is the quality, not the quantity of references that counts.

          Obtain copies of useful references

          It is very important to allow sufficient time to obtain copies of useful references. Most databases will have a mixture of full-text articles and bibliographic citations plus abstracts (summaries) of articles. Check Library Catalogue to see if the Library stocks the items you require. If the items you require are not available in full text via our Library they may be obtained via Inter-Library Loan, but make sure you have enough time before ordering.

          Read, evaluate and absorb

          The quality of the information you will find when searching will vary enormously depending on the sources you use. Therefore, it is important to be able to distinguish between academic and more popular or biased material. You must evaluate what you have retrieved. Some questions to think about:

          • Is this a primary or secondary text? (i.e. is it the original research/source of information or is it an evaluation/summary/discussion text) Both will be useful in your research, you just need to be sure which one you are reading.
          • Is the information relevant?
          • Who is the author?
          • When was it written? (i.e. is it still relevant to today, is it out of date and so should be disregarded or is it seminal (so ground breaking/influential to the research that took place after it was written)
          • Why was it written? (i.e. what influences/biases do you need to be aware of)
          • Does it agree / disagree with what you already knew or have read? (i.e. this is normal, you will find respected authors who think very different things to each other and have done indepth research on the topic)
          • What is the evidence? (i.e. make sure you are not just reading the conclusions and that the author is backing up their statements)
          • Are they quoting others work or their own? If they are quoting the work of others, do follow this up and find the original source (if you can) as this will provide you with further context and detail.

          Make sure you are noting down the arguments/evidence not just summary sentences so that you can refer in your work to the core of the information source.

          Also make sure you are not reading passively and keep testing yourself. Can you close the source and remember the key things it was mentioning and explain them to someone else. This is a good sign you have understood the source and will help with paraphrasing the work in your assignment.

          Within your notes and whilst you are reading make sure you are separating facts from opinion/interpretation so that you are clear on which is which. Most sources will have a combination of both within them.

          For further assistance in evaluating material look at &ldquoCritically analysing information sources&rdquo from Cornell University.

          Always make sure, when you are reading and making notes from the sources that you are keeping an accurate record of what you have been reading so that you can do your referencing later. Within this, make it clear when you have copied a quote from a source or done a summary in your own words as you reference these differently to each other.

          Once you have enough relevant and reliable material you will be ready to write.

          Proof Reading

          Imagine you have just finished your dissertation, which is full of original insights, informed by a range of research and with a brilliant argument. However, if you do not read through it afterwards, checking for spelling, grammar and overall presentation, this omission may negatively affect your marks.

          Proof reading gives you a chance to review your work and add in anything you may have missed out. If you have written your assignment in a rush before a deadline, this means you have less time for checking your work thoroughly for errors. Thus it makes sense to be well organised and make a note of essay submission deadlines ahead of time &ndash ideally making a start on each assignment well before this.

          Spelling and grammar

          Spellcheck on Microsoft Word is a fantastic tool, but it does have weaknesses. Often it can confuse homonyms, such as &lsquobear&rsquo and &lsquobare.&rsquo Similarly, spellcheck may present some unusual brand names as erroneous if it cannot be found in its dictionary. Check that your computer is using the UK version instead of the USA. Some students like to use Grammarly, an Internet based plug-in.

          Techniques to follow

          After you have finished writing, take some time away from your assignment and then come back to it in a few days&rsquo time. You will have a fresher approach and will find it easier to spot errors.

          Printing your assignment out and reading it through line by line will help you see mistakes. Some students like to read from the bottom or read it out loud upwards. Asking friends and family who are not on your degree course to read it through can be useful as they will be able to concentrate your use of English, presentation and structure, rather than focusing on your subject knowledge.

          George Orwell, the famous English author of &lsquoAnimal Farm&rsquo and &lsquo1984,&rsquo had his own rules for improving your writing style. He suggested &lsquonever using a long word when a short one will do.&rsquo Sometimes students believe that if they adopt long words borrowed from their thesaurus, it will impress their lecturer, but actually this may make your writing harder to read. Orwell also advised that &lsquoif it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.&rsquo This will help you follow a simpler, easy to follow mode of writing. (Orwell, G, 1945. Politics and the English Language. London: Penguin Classics.)

          Presentation

          Some lecturers may specify that you submit your work in a certain format, such as Size 12 Times New Roman and double spaced. It is essential that you follow these instructions when they are given. Paragraphs should be between 4-7 lines long, and can be used to introduce a new topic or give the reader time to pause. It has been known for some students to present a wall of text without line breaks, which can be off putting to the reader.

          Think back to the feedback you received for your last assignment. How have you built on the advice given from your last piece of work? It is crucial that you engage with lecturers&rsquo feedback in order to develop as a learner.

          Osmond, A. (2016) Academic Writing and Grammar for Students. 2nd edn. London: Sage.


          Examples of Sublimation

          Discussing sublimation in theoretical terms can provide a basis for a general understanding of what it is. However, it's hard to grasp the idea completely until you can visualize specific examples of how it works. Here are some scenarios where sublimation might come into play.

          Anger and Aggression

          In most situations, anger and aggression are socially unacceptable, although there are exceptions. While some people do vent their anger often, the consequences often can be extremely negative. To avoid those negative consequences, they may use sublimation to redirect those urges. Here are some examples.

          • Someone has strong urges to cut people. Instead of giving into that aggressive urge, they become a surgeon - a situation where they can cut people and help them rather than harming them.
          • You are extremely angry at someone. Instead of starting an argument with them or doing something harmful to them, you put all your energy into remodeling your house. With every strike of the hammer, you're using the energy of that anger to do something positive.
          • You can't stop thinking about how angry you are with your boss after you were reprimanded at work. Rather than quitting or getting into a shouting match with your boss, you decide to take the long walk to your home after work. By the time you arrive, you're tired, but your anger has decreased substantially.

          • You're so angry that you just feel like punching someone. Instead of punching the first person you see, you go to a gym and sign up for boxing lessons or join a football team, where your aggression can be seen as a positive trait.

          Unacceptable Sexual Urges

          Sexual urges, of course, aren't always unacceptable. If you're in a relationship, they're considered normal. They could lead to developing a closer bond as well as bringing new life into the world. However, many sexual urges are considered deviant or otherwise harmful. Here are some ways people might sublimate these urges.

          • Say you're going out of town to a convention for your work. You have the urge to cheat on your spouse while you're away. You might channel those energies into learning more about your industry, expanding your network of business associates, or seeing the sights in a new city.
          • You have strong sexual urges that, deep down, you feel are inappropriate. Through sublimation, you transform those sexual impulses into becoming an artist. Your mind protects you from following through with your disturbing urges to protect you from seeing yourself as a sexual deviant.
          • You feel like having sex constantly, but your promiscuousness is putting you at risk of sexually transmitted diseases or unwanted pregnancy. So, you use that energy in constructive ways that are not necessarily related in content to those urges. For example, you might take up running and start training for a marathon.

          Other Distressing Feelings

          Sublimation can also help to transform other negative feelings into positive paths. The following examples show other ways sublimation works.

          • Your boyfriend or girlfriend, cruelly, leaves you. You're heartbroken. However, instead of being overwhelmed by your sadness and despair, you take up art, writing, gardening, or home decorating to create something beautiful.
          • You've been permanently injured in a car accident. Rather than dwelling on feelings that life is unfair, you get involved with a traffic safety organization. Thus, you turn your negative feelings into positive action.
          • You feel frustrated at work because you don't have a lot of control over what you do each day. So, you work hard to get a promotion that puts you in a position of power. Or, you go out and start your own business where you're the boss.

          Is Sublimation Good or Bad?

          Sublimation in psychology is a neutral concept, neither good nor bad. It's just a description of something that can happen to humans. There are two things to remember about defense mechanisms like sublimation. First, they usually happen on an unconscious level. That means you may have little control over them. Second, defense mechanisms falsify reality, either by distorting or transforming your view of what's real.

          Although it might seem that having a false sense of reality is to be avoided, it can help you get through your darkest days. In some cases, though, good feelings can be sublimated if they seem too big to endure. So, although sublimation is a positive thing in many cases, there are times when it could rob you of experiencing the ecstatic emotions. Still, Anna Freud and others have classified sublimation as one of the most mature defense mechanisms.

          Therapy and Sublimation?

          As mentioned above, for most of us, sublimation is something that happens subconsciously &ndash without us being aware of it. As a result, sublimation can be as much a problem as the emotions it is burying. Alternatively, therapists can help you actively use sublimation to help you deal with other issues.

          First, you may want to hold onto the energy that's coming from those unacceptable urges. Feelings themselves are never inappropriate as long as you choose appropriate ways of dealing with them. So, it isn't wrong or bad to feel the power of those emotions. Once you know what feelings are behind your behaviors, you can allow yourself to experience those feelings without acting directly on them.

          If you have sad feelings, you can recognize that and intentionally choose to write poems or draw pictures that express them. The question is: is this really sublimation? After all, it's happening on a conscious level. And, you're still well-grounded in reality. The truth is that it doesn't matter how you classify these activities. What matters is that you put those energies to work to do something productive rather than destructive.

          On the other hand, if you have strong urges but don&rsquot understand why, therapy or counseling can help you recognize the true feelings or urges behind the sublimation. For instance, you may have a strong desire to paint every waking moment. Yet, you don't know why. By talking to a therapist, you can find out why you have that urge. Then, you can resolve it more completely.

          How to Deal With Unacceptable Urges And Feelings

          Are you troubled by disturbing urges or distressing emotions? If so, you may be able to find a way to resolve them by putting those energies to a more helpful purpose. You don't have to deny that you have those feelings, but sublimation can help you stay within the bounds of what is socially acceptable and acceptable to you.

          However, unless you use sublimation naturally and unconsciously, you may have trouble understanding how to make it work. Or, you may want to choose a different way to deal with the conflict between your urges and your ideals. Fortunately, help is available .

          Reaching Out with BetterHelp You can go to a mental health center in your local area to help with managing your urges. If you prefer the comfort and convenience of online therapy, you can talk to a licensed and professional counselor through BetterHelp.

          Communication is facilitated by secure video and voice calls as well as private messenger rooms.

          While remote help with mental and emotional health is promising, it can also be a tad unsettling if you aren&rsquot used to the idea. Fortunately, people have gone before you and left promising testimonials:

          Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

          What does sublimation mean?

          Freud's psychoanalytic theory defined sublimation as a process by which negative urges, drives, and behaviors are channeled into more socially acceptable behaviors. Examples of sublimation are channeling inappropriate urges into positive behaviors like exercise, therapy, or other physical activities.

          What are the defense mechanisms in psychology?

          According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, defense mechanisms are built-in mental defenses and behaviors that are activated unconsciously by outside circumstances. Freud believed that sublimation is a defense mechanism that can be activated either consciously or unconsciously in order to channel lower drives into high physical activities. Scientific research supports experimental evidence for sublimation and higher physical activities.

          Is sublimation a defense mechanism?

          According to personality and social psychology, it is believed that sublimation is a built-in psychological defense mechanism. Sigmund Freud defined sublimation as the process of replacing undesirable desires and behaviors with higher physical activities as an alternative to acting out socially unacceptable behaviors.

          What is a real-life example of sublimation?

          Real-life examples of sublimation (according to the cultural psychological approach) occur when people make conscious or unconscious decisions to replace unacceptable behaviors with more socially acceptable behaviors. If someone is feeling angry or violent towards someone, instead of acting out in an aggressive manner, sublimation is a mature way to resolve the issue. Going for a run or exercising is a higher physical activity than fighting or arguing.

          Can you sublimate over sublimation?

          Based on interpersonal psychoanalysis, Freud believed that sublimation could be implemented at will using a psychological approach. Social psychology has also shown evidence to this effect that dog tails Freud's sublimation theory for eliminating bad behavior.

          What is the opposite of sublimation?

          Freud's sublimation theory is based on cultural psychological factors that frown on behaviors seen as socially undesirable. Examples of sublimation opposites are arguing, lying, violence, and sexually deviant behaviors outlined in personality and social psychology. These behaviors are the opposite of socially acceptable behaviors that include physical activities, scientific, artistic, and creative pursuits. There is evidence for sublimation tactics successfully diffusing potentially disastrous situations in social psychology.

          Can you sublimate on anything?

          The process of sublimation can be applied in a variety of situations. This is especially true in sublimation culture and creativity pursuits where people engage in creative behaviors to keep from engaging in harmful and undesirable acts. This idea falls in line with Freud's view stating that sublimation can be activated at will. In cases of interpersonal psychoanalysis where sublimation was used the use of sublimation was a sign that the situation would likely have a better outcome.

          What causes ghosting in Sublimation?

          Ghosting in a psychological approach to a defense mechanism that requires a complete disconnect from a person or situation. In psychology and sublimation culture, sublimation can be looked at as a safe alternative to engaging in negative behaviors as an example of interpersonal psychoanalysis. In the case of "ghosting", a person who is sublimating may purposely focus their psychic energy on positive pursuits to keep themselves from acting out negative behavior patterns.

          What is the meaning for sublimation?

          &ldquoSublimation&rdquo in its many different uses, generally refers to the change of a thing in appearance but not necessarily in character.

          In psychology, it means to direct undesirable thought and impulses into productive outlets.

          What is sublimation in mental health?

          In mental health, sublimation means directing undesirable, unproductive or dangerous desires into acceptable and practical actions.

          What is sublimation and examples?

          Common examples of sublimation include creating visual art to express and explore interests in safe ways, expressing thoughts and feelings through writing, and expending pent up energy through physical activity.

          What is an example of sublimation in psychology?

          A classic example of sublimation in psychology might be taking up boxing or wrestling as a way of getting out pent up anger in a safe and controlled environment.

          What is a real life example of sublimation?

          One of the darkest &ndash but best preserved and studied &ndash historical cases of sublimation is that of the Marquis se Sade, a nineteenth-century French Aristocrat whose name gives us the term &ldquosadism.&rdquo

          De Sade&rsquos sexual impulses were so strange and harmful that he was imprisoned for them and later spent time in an insane asylum. During this time when he was, at least largely, incapable of acting on these impulses, he prodigiously wrote disturbing poems and novels detailing his sexual fantasies.

          How is sublimation done?

          Sublimation takes place any time that an undesirable or dangerous impulse or desire is expressed through an acceptable or productive outlet. It can take place subconsciously or consciously and is a favorite tool of psychologists and counselors.

          What is the cause of sublimation?

          Whether conscious or subconscious, sublimation is caused by the need to act on an impulse or desire with the understanding that it cannot be acted on as it exists.

          How do you sublimate anger?

          How you might go about sublimating anger depends on where your anger comes from and what sorts of things you enjoy.

          If your anger comes from frustration at work, you might express it productivity motivated by the desire to get a promotion &ndash or a new job.

          What are 3 examples of sublimation?

          • Hitting a heavy-bag when you&rsquore mad
          • Writing poetry when you&rsquore sad
          • Creating art when you&rsquore anxious.

          Conclusion
          Whatever you choose to do, the most important thing is to address your unacceptable urges responsibly and beneficially. When you find the best way to resolve these inner conflicts, you can have a more peaceful, fulfilling life.


          Social Change: Meaning, Types and Characteristics

          When change in social structure, social order, social values, certain customs and traditions, socio- cultural norms, code of conduct, way of conducting oneself in the society, standards, attitudes, customs and traditions of the society and related factors take place, it is said that there is social change.

          When there is social change, the process of socialization also changes accordingly. The individual who is an active member of the society becomes an agent and target of social change. He brings social changes and also is influenced by such changes.

          In a particular period or after a gap of several years each and every member of the universe is subjected to face social change. A particular social order does not continue for several decades, say hundred years or more. There is bound to be some change.

          In a particular period people of the society are guided by certain rules and regulations, customs, traditions values and beliefs, the way every one has to manage and guide himself, people have to manage their style of living, their work, business, profession and conduct. Individuals of the society, young and old are guided by these rules and belief.

          Socialization of children is also influenced by these frame of reference. The DOS and Donts of the society, as we know influence the process of socialization. But after a certain period, due to evolution or revolution we find slight or remarkable change in the above aspects of social life.

          In some cases, these changes may be slow or fast, may be a matter of degree or kind. In some cases it may be substantial and drastic while in other cases it may gradual and of low order.

          Type of Social Change:

          From the ensuing discussion it appears that social change can be categorised to two types:

          (1) Evolutionary Social Change

          (2) Revolutionary Social Change.

          (1) Evolutionary Social Changes:

          Evolutionary changes occur in course of a long period slowly and gradually and through evolutionary process. Such changes are not very drastic or remarkable. They proceed gradually like the process of conditioning and people learn to adjust with such changes gradually.

          During our school and college days we were wearing saree and nobody then could dream of a married any a women wearing even Salwar and Kameez. We also used to put veil on our head, after marriage. I remember after my marriage in 1960,I used to put veil on my head for 35 years while in job and at home as well.

          But this system has changed gradually. Now what about girls, married women is Orissa also wear Salwar Kameez, various other western dress and normally do not put veil on their head. This practice has been gradual and it has also been accepted by parents, relations in laws and other members of the society.

          So much so that when today a girl attends, college wearing a saree others around look at her with raised eyebrows. Even some of her friends start joking at her calling her ‘Chudaa’. means, old fashioned.

          Using lipstick and going to beauty parlours were considered as taboos so for women in Orissa some decades back. But now even college going girls including many women teachers go to school and colleges using various kinds of make-up. This is not considered a taboo now.

          Gradually people have adjusted to such evolutionary changes may be due to urbanization and western influence. Some years back while I was in Government job and went to Delhi to attend a meeting, one of my lady colleagues who was also attending the same meeting wanted to go to a beauty parlour on our wayback to hotel.

          She also asked me to join her. But she was astonished when I told her that I have never visited a beauty parlour even when I was young and I would not like to do it now.

          Though I as a member of the society have accommodated to certain social changes which I consider beneficial or may be not harmful, I do not accommodate to those changes which are harmful for our society for our social values, culture and finally our conduct in the society. Still many people are there is the society who follow me.

          People are able to adjust better with evolutionary social changes as the process is slow and gradual and hence easy to adjust. We also find today many male members wearing pants and shirts while sitting in Puja which was not acceptable several years back.

          Use of Jeans and T. shirts in place of half pants and shirts have become common sights in schools and colleges, in public life and members of the society have gradually coped with this.

          Even old and aged people of India are now found wearing such westernised dresses without any conflict or guilt feeling, since society has gradually accepted it. Similarly women going for higher education, studying in coeducational institutions, do join army, navy and airforce, for becoming pilots, going to space to join politics, doing various jobs which were earlier meant for men only.

          Doing various jobs outside the domestic front, which were not acceptable several decades back for women is now accepted. Husbands in Indian society doing domestic chores which were not acceptable hundred years back have become common practices to-day in Indian societies. This has been possible due to gradual, evolutionary social change. This change has not occurred instantly, suddenly, abruptly.

          Earlier many people did not pay tax, but now people have developed the mind set to pay tax considering it as legal and are paying tax voluntarily. These are simple examples of important evolutionary changes which occur gradually within sufficient time perspective.

          (2) Revolutionary Changes:

          It is the opposite of evolutionary change. When the changes in various sectors of our social system occur suddenly, drastically and sufficiently so as to differentiate it from gradual, slow change, it is called revolutionary social change.

          The change in other words is great in degree, remarkable. The changes are such that they change the whole social order and the course or style of living, conduct and concept of do’s and donts. They are a matter of kind which occur due to some movement, revolution war, rapid technological changes, due to sudden change in social events.

          They occur very quickly and within a short period or short duration. Let us take some examples. The changes in social structure and social system which occurred after various famous revolutions like the French, the Russian, the Chinese and the American Revolution and more recently the revolutionary changes that occurred or are still occurring in various Afro-Asian countries occur due to revolutions and movements India’s freedom movement or revolution for independence from ‘British Raj’ is a case of revolutionary movement.

          Besides India’s small or big movements to eradicate the evils of colonialism, caste and class system economic disparity, tribal life style, superstition, to fight against suppression and oppression, are valid examples. Introduction of widow marriage, abolition of child marriage, and Satidaha Pratha, acceptance of intercaste and inter religion marriage are to some extent examples of revolutionary change.

          In short, those remarkable and drastic changes which occur in the social system of a country or society in a very short span of time are possible due to revolution and movements big or small. Such drastic changes not only change the life style of people in a society, they also transform the relationship between individual across countries including within the countries.

          Various cross cultural studies lead to support this observation. Attitude change is an important example of the effect of social change which may happen either due to evolutionary or revolutionary change.

          Because of various social changes attitude of people also change towards the social system. It is therefore rightly viewed that man is not only an agent, but also a target of social change. In short, man is indispensable in bringing social changes as well as is influenced by the same social changes.

          He makes or changes the society where he lives and is again influenced by such a changed society. Social activities who fight against dowry system and are able to pass a law in that regard are also influenced by the abolition of dowry system. When their sons and daughters get married they cannot claim or give dowry.

          Characteristics of Social Change:

          When either evolutionary or revolutionary changes take place in the social system one lives,, observable changes take place in the social values, customs, traditions, cultural heritage, age old beliefs, style of living, dress, attitude, superstitions stereotype, way of conducting oneself in the society, process of socialization and overall behaviour of its members.

          Thus the chief characteristics of social change is the change in various areas of the social system where man is born, grown and dies. Such changes influence his attitude towards various stimuli, values, faiths and beliefs, his emotions and sentiments, his moral and religious standard, his conscience and super ago.

          The characteristics and nature of social change influence a mans Id, ego and super ego, his entire psycho physical system, his mental and physical characteristics, and his overall nature, conduct, response and behaviour in the environment in which he moves, such as his family, neighbourghood, his response to social members, and how he reacts to them.

          When remarkable difference is observed in ones attitude towards widow marriage, towards dishonesty, towards various cultural conditions, towards unwed motherhood, single parenting, divorce, infanticitis, family planning, girl child, legalized abortion and population control, we say that social change has occurred.

          Further such changes in the attitude and values of a person should be more or less durable, relatively permanent and whole heartedy acceptable and practised by a majority of the society. A social change must continue for a considerable period. When certain social orders are “out” and in their place new or alternative social orders arc “in”, when such changes are perceivable we say that there has been social change.

          However such acceptances of the change by a few members would not be called social change. If a few accept the changes and majority oppose it, it gradually disappears and people will again go for the old values and customs. Sometimes it is found than when majority people experience that the changed social system does more harm than good, they again go back to the old social order.

          Ayurvedic medicine and yoga which were used and practiced by most people during the ancient time and were given up in between have now again become very popular and people are again taking their help to get cured and keep oneself sound and fit.

          Man being the prime motivator of social change, social change cannot be given shape without the human being. Majority of the people ultimately have to conform the social change for its continuity and durability.

          Factors Influencing Social Change:

          Social change do not occur automatically. Certain factors do influence social change.

          They are discussed below briefly:

          (i) Social Movement and Social Revolution:

          Pages of world history records several important social movements and revolutions such as French revolution, American revolution, Russian revolution, Chinese revolution and so on.

          A social movement originates when either people are discontent and unhappy with the existing social system or social order, when people try to establish a new order of life or a new style of living or when the social system is established in a condition of unrest.

          According to Blumer (1946) social movements derive their motive from dissatisfaction with the current form of life and also from wishes and hopes for a new scheme or system of living. According to Turner and Killian (1957) a social movement is a collective acting with some continuity to promote changes or resist a change in the society or group of which it is a part.

          Then, what social movement exactly means? A social movement refers to collective efforts to establish a new order of life which ultimately brings changes in the existing social system of that society, state or country.

          Movements organised by minority groups initially may be accepted and practised by people collectively. Heberice (1951) holds that a social movement basically attempts to bring about fundamental changes in the social order particularly in the basic field of property and labour relationships.

          Currently the law to properly rights to Hindu Women has changed, specially due to the active efforts of various women organisations in India who are pushing their movements for women empowerment. Women in India and in many parts of the word arc still considered as socially disadvantaged and economically weak.

          They are still exploited by their male counterparts and even powerful women members at the domestic front. Domestic violence has been rampant in India as surveys show. Therefore various women organisations have started movements to give women their right to property, right to work, right to earn right to birth right to economic independence, right to education and finally right to live dignifiedly.

          The repeated and frequent rise in social movements in a country hints at the discontentment and unhappiness with the existing social order. The purpose of such revolutions is to bring changes in the existing social order which are considered evil and discriminative by the members of the society.

          Cameron is of the opinion that a social movement occurs when a fairly large number of people band together in order to alter or support some portion of the exiting culture or social order.

          Human Rights movements among the African-Americans in the United States serve as an example. In India even several Human Rights Organisation are starting movements to change the existing attitude of the higher socio-economic groups towards their lower counter parts.

          Similarly the right to information is a kind of human right which has been constitutionally legalised in India and abroad serves a fine example of change in social order and social system.

          Keeping in view the purpose of social change Sherif and Sherif have given the following comprehensive definition of social movement.

          According to them A social movement consists of a pattern of attempts over time prompted by a state of common unrest, discontent or aspiration shared by large number of individuals to bring about change in, to establish, the maintain or to suppress a definite scheme of human relations and values through pronouncement, literature, meetings and direct collective action, (e.g., rallies, boycotts, marches, strikes, insurrection etc.).

          A social movement may be initiated by suffering, tortured, neglected and humiliated persons who are whole heartedly dissatisfied with the existing social order. Initially the pattern of social movement erratic, being half hazard and unorganised may be started by a few.

          But gradually over time, it takes a concrete shape and large numbers of people come forward to participate. Subsequently, it becomes more organised and coordinated. It has a formal leader irrespective of the fact whether finally it is successful or not.

          The Narmada Dam Movement is a small social movement which till to-day has not taken a successful shape. But no doubt, it is a social movement initiated for the benefit of some farmers of the area who have been affected directly or indirectly by the construction of the dam.

          This project as common man visualizes has its advantages as well as disadvantages. But when advantages are less than disadvantages a social movement becomes difficult to be successful.

          (ii) Common Motivation:

          In order to make a social movement successful there is a need to coordinate local attempts and to make a comprehensive formulation of the causes of discontentment, the purpose and forms of action to achieve the goal. A social movement breaks down without a leader with leadership qualities and its success also depends upon the co-ordination and cooperation of the affected members.

          A social movement which is the basic cause behind social change stands on its motivational base.

          There must be a single motive common to all participants on which the social movement can stand firmly such as causes like woman’s right to vote and property, woman’s empowerment, widespread dissatisfaction of landless people, defects in the existing land reform rules, dissatisfaction over inadequate working conditions, the right to information or civil rights, equal opportunity to every citizen irrespective of caste, creed, community or property, etc.

          (iii) Common Need:

          Common motivation originates from common need. When a particular social movement includes several spheres of living like change in working condition, right to vote, right to earn, right to information etc. it will fight for broad changes in social system either through evolutionary or revolutionary method.

          Interested participants of the social movements are usually those who are directly affected by the existing social order. But sometimes social and human rights activities take leading part in social movements without being directly affected.

          Revolutionary movements help immensely in achieving social change quickly. The scope and rate of social changes are culminated and accentuated through such revolutions which involve the need of large number of people, has a firm and dedicated leader who can fight in an organised and coordinated manner.

          Need for social change is a powerful factor of influencing and bringing social change. If there is no need to be dissatisfied with the existing social system or social order, an evolutionary or revolutionary social movement cannot start.

          Just as need is the mother of invention and motivation, similarly it is the mother of all social, political and religious movements. Thus need works as a powerful cause of social change. The need may be of various types like, economic, political, religious, social, psychological or biological.

          The need based on the dissatisfaction over caste system, economic disparity, discrimination in social states, discrimination in facilities available to various racial, communal religions linguistic and social economic groups, backward classes, minority groups, and discrimination over reservation policy leading to dissatisfaction among the affected group.

          A strong need or needs based on proper realization, proper planning and proper organisation, work as the back bone of any social movement either major or minor. If the need is not value oriented and is weak, the group will gradually disintegrate and the movement will finally lack cooperation and strength.

          Hence need for social change is one of the powerful factors which goads the movement towards the direction of achieving the goal or ideology. A common need helps in inducing a common motivation which further pushes the desire to take forward the social revolution or movements as the case may be.

          A women who has experienced the pangs of suffering and evil effects of child marriage may start a movement against child marriage.

          Similarly, a leader of the landless labourers who himself is landless and has suffered due to this disadvantage, would feel the greater need of a movement for allotment of land to needy landless labourers. The stronger is the need, the greater is the motive for a social change and the higher is the success rate.

          (iv) Long Standing Suffering due to Suppression and Oppression:

          This factor influences a lot any social movement aimed at social change based on a single or number of issues.

          Suppression by the higher socio economic class of the lower socioeconomic group, suppression of the low caste by the high caste, by the high rank employees of its low rank counterparts, rejection of the genuine demands of the various socially economically and psychologically disadvantaged class, and many more problems of a caste and class based society, racial and communal feeling produce the urge for social change.

          People who have been suppressed from generation to generation initially tolerate and remain silent. But gradually they revolt when their limit of tolerance is crossed. At such a cross road some people start a movement and provide leadership.

          They discuss with others of the same group having similar needs and form a group. Gradually the number increases as more and more people join the band. The movement becomes more organised, strong and collective and finally takes the shape of a social movement.

          Many people of Africa, India and other Asian countries including various tribes who have been subjected to a lot of humiliation, prejudice, torture and inhumanity at least open their month and start revolting like a volcanic irruption.

          (v) Impact of Communication:

          Many social changes are influenced by various electronic and mass medias like TV, Radio, news paper etc. These agents highlight the woes and sufferings of needy people and encourage a change in the social order. People who read papers, listen to Radio or view television people who are educated are influenced. They actively or passively directly or indirectly participate in the process of social change.

          These medias make the common man aware of their problems, their rights and demands. Their clouded mind is lighted through their information. Modern day information technology has helped a lot in this regard.

          These knowledge’s and information’s provoke them to join a movement or fight for their cause wholeheartedly. Through the mass media people come to know what is happening where and accordingly they also start joining the band.

          Similarly through participation in group discussions, person to person or face to face communication and contact a lot of information is received. The feedback through this technique is so strong that people are highly motivated to fight for a social change or accept it.

          Though man is a target of social change, he is not however, a passive agent in any of the social changes. A social change to be durable must need the active participation and genuine willingness to participate is the decision making process. Otherwise the social change will be temporary and mingle or fade with time.

          It cannot sustain if force is used to accept social change. People are to be convinced through communication that such a social change is necessary for his better standard of living and good social, moral and emotional life. All social changes to be durable need the involvement of man himself, need changes in the participant himself, in his outlook, attitude, commitments identifications, realizations etc. It a man preaches one thing and practices another social change will not be possible.

          The man has first to follow and implement the yardsticks of social change on himself and his family, before trying to apply it on others. This can be achieved through various means of communication which can convince him to change his attitude and outlook. A person who speaks against dowry system.

          Should follow the same at the time of his son’s or daughter’s marriage. In other words he should not claim dowry from the bride’s parents at the time of his son’s marriage or give dowry to his daughter.

          (vi) Education:

          Notwithstanding the fact that education is a means of communication, education is discussed here separately as a means of social change because of its specific importance. Educated people are more conscious and aware of the positive and negative points of any social system.

          Since education provides knowledge and knowledge increases mans outlook as well as rationality and judgement, education acts as a very powerful force of social change. With the rise in the percentage of educated people in the population it is seen that people have been more conscious of the social evils and are fighting for a change. Hence the importance of education cannot be under estimated is social change.

          (vii) Technological Changes:

          Technological changes including various inventions also influence social change. Urbanisation and work culture etc. are influenced by a technological society. In the 21st century when man is entering the space huge and making huge technological advances, the social order of that country is bound to change.

          Technological advances do influence the life style, way of living, conduct and day-to-day behaviour of a person becomes more urbanised than traditional and more complex than simple. His needs, desire and life style change suddenly. Under such circumstances he experiences the urgent need for a social change.

          It has been noticed that in many Western and advanced countries like US, UK, Russia, China, German and Japan various technological changes have brought huge and drastic transformation is social life.

          Technological advances have made work easier, life luxurious and have pumped enough money to have a different life style. Even in Indian societies today we find a remarkable difference in the social life compared to what was a few decades back.

          Consequently, in various big cities of India today it has become a wide practice by affluent youths to go to pubs, night clubs, parities and dancing sessions. They try to enjoy life through these ways which were considered a taboo two three decades back. Of course in many conservative societies in urban areas in India, these practices are still considered unacceptable by our culture.

          Now a days therefore everywhere big cities are doing roaring business by opening night clubs, pubs and even beauty parlours. Even attitude of parents have changed towards those life styles, conduct and dress which were considered taboo and antisocial earlier. Technological advances make life more easy with the use of modern gadgets and hence people get enough time to engage themselves in other activities.


          What Causes Poverty?

          What does "Developing World" mean? Why are so many women poor?

          woman-671927 CC0 Public Domain via Pixaby

          10 Steps in Writing

          All of us know what it is like to try to understand something which is not being explained clearly. Or have you ever had an instructor who did teach clearly, but was boring? Or only told you things you already knew? Your job in this essay is to:

          1. Know Your Audience: You can vary the way you write this topic depending on who your audience is. For instance, you can write an essay on “how to shoot a free throw” both for someone who’s never played basketball before and for an experienced player who wants to fine tune her technique. Generally, you will aim for an audience who knows less than you do about that topic or someone who is at your same level but doesn&apost know the specific information you can teach them
          2. Narrow or focus your topic so you can tell about it in depth and give a lot of interesting details.
          3. Tell your reader something he doesn’t already know about this concept. Go beyond 𠇌ommon knowledge."
          4. Give your reader a reason to learn about your concept. Connect this information to something they already know, or give them a definition which either reverses their expectations or gives a new perspective or insight.
          5. Give a clear definition. Explain any unfamiliar terms or special vocabulary. Use comparisons or analogies if appropriate.
          6. Choose an organizing technique which works for your topic. Make sure the introduction and conclusion are linked. The conclusion should not summarize but give a final thought to the audience.
          7. Describe your concept clearly and in a logical sequence. Be careful about transition markers.
          8. Use reliable and accurate sources. If you know a lot about a concept, you can certainly use your own knowledge and experience. However, it also helps to look up the concept online and also use interviews and surveys to help pinpoint what your audience knows and what they need to know. If you know someone who knows more about this concept than you, you can interview them to get information. Moreover, if this person (or you) has special credentials which show they are an expert on this subject, be sure to include that in your essay so that your reader knows your explanation is authoritative.
          9. Research interesting details and information. Sources can be your own observation, personal experience, readings, interviews, research and surveys
          10. Make it interesting by giving vivid detail, using humor, and giving good examples. Draw reader in with title and opening paragraph

          Every natural occurring incident has some relevance and has impact on the living creatures. Some of the importance of tides is discussed below:

          1. Fishing: Tides affect other aspects of oceanic life, including the reproductive activities of fish and ocean plants.

          2. Tidal Zone Foods: Edible sea creatures like Crabs, mussels, snails, seaweed etc. inhabit the tidal zone and the most important point to be remembering that without the regular washing of the tides, these complex and abundant creatures would die and food resources would diminish.

          3. Navigation: High tides help in navigation. They raise the water level close to the shores which helps the ships to arrive at the harbour more easily.

          4. Weather: Tides stirred the ocean water that makes habitable climatic condition and balance the temperatures on the planets.

          5. Tidal Energy: In every 24 hour, two high tides and two low tides occur. Hence, the fast movement of water during the inflow and outflow will provide a source of renewable energy to communities living along the coast.



Comments:

  1. Doujin

    It's okay, it's the entertaining phrase

  2. Mejin

    Bravo, what words..., a brilliant idea

  3. Palamedes

    I must tell you you were misled.

  4. Fogerty

    I already have it



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