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Are there professional cognitive science test subjects?

Are there professional cognitive science test subjects?



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I'm interested in how cognitive science experiments are designed and executed. Up until now, all of the papers I've seen dealing with cognition use availability of test subjects as one of the major factors of recruitment for experiments. For example, students are recruited for an experiment, and because the group is so diverse, they are tested on general skills that the entire group would possess, like reading or math.

For example, consider this experiment: "Happiness economics" in reverse: Does happiness affect productivity? There were 276 university students and faculty involved. The students are tested with a math task.

Math and reading comprehension are general skills, and I can think of few people who earn their living with those skills, aside from SAT tutors.

I'm interested if there have been other types of cognitive experiments tried, where the skills used to evaluate experiment are at a "professional" level. For example professional athletes, soldiers or pilots come to mind.

  • Experiments that use scoring percentage as a metric for basketball players
  • Experiments that use marksmanship grouping as a metric
  • Professional video game players

Are there any groups of people, whose professional skills are consistently tested as metric of cognitive performance?

Thank you for your input!


There are a few people who have been very extensively experimented on because they have unusual brain lesions (which is kind of like the opposite of a skill). The most famous is Henry Molaison (HM), who developed a rare case of episodic anterograde amnesia following surgery for severe epilepsy. He spent the entire latter part of his life in a care institute and was a continuous subject of various learning experiments and imaging studies. Another patient with very specific memory-related lesions is KC, who has been the subject of at least 20 case studies.

A couple of other studies that might be of interest are West et al. (2008), who recruited experienced video game players in order to find people with strong skills at rapid visual scanning, and research by Eleanor Maguire and colleagues that examined structural changes in the brains of new London taxi drivers as they acquired their fantastically detailed spatial map of the city's streets.

West, G. L., Stevens, S. A., Pun, C., & Pratt, J. (2008). Visuospatial experience modulates attentional capture: Evidence from action video game players. Journal of Vision, 8(16).

Maguire, E. A., Gadian, D. G., Johnsrude, I. S., Good, C. D., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., & Frith, C. D. (2000). Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(8), 4398-4403.


Citing psychological tests

The APA blog outlines the format for citing a Psychological test or measure. APA prescribes the general APA syntax for citing a test or measure:

Who (Author) - When (Date) - What (Title) [format note] - Where (Place)

A distinction on whether you are citing the database record for a test, or the test itself is made by writing [Database record] or [Measurement instrument] in square brackets after the test's title.

Note that older citations for print tests (pre-internet) can look exactly like the citation for a book. This can be confusing when tracking down citations. If unclear, you can trying search PsycTESTS or WorldCat to elicit more information.


Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science

Psychology is the study of thinking, and cognitive science is the interdisciplinary investigation of mind and intelligence that also includes philosophy, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. In these investigations, many philosophical issues arise concerning methods and central concepts.

The Handbook of Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science contains 16 essays by leading philosophers of science that illuminate the nature of the theories and explanations used in the investigation of minds.

Topics discussed include representation, mechanisms, reduction, perception, consciousness, language, emotions, neuroscience, and evolutionary psychology.

Psychology is the study of thinking, and cognitive science is the interdisciplinary investigation of mind and intelligence that also includes philosophy, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. In these investigations, many philosophical issues arise concerning methods and central concepts.

The Handbook of Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science contains 16 essays by leading philosophers of science that illuminate the nature of the theories and explanations used in the investigation of minds.

Topics discussed include representation, mechanisms, reduction, perception, consciousness, language, emotions, neuroscience, and evolutionary psychology.


Multi-professional cognitive interventions including occupational therapy

Doing the critical appraisals, the ethical aspects of each included study was scrutinised to make sure they complied to the core ethical principles [19-21]. The ethical aspects of all articles included in this literature review were considered as satisfactory due to all being peer-reviewed.
Appraisal checklists for systematic reviews, quantitative, qualitative and survey-based studies and with criteria upon which one answers yes/no/not evident were used to determine the quality of the articles [15-16], which were provided by Jönköping University (completed examples in appendix 2). Johansson et al [26] evaluated randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that received above 50% yes answers in the critical appraisal as high quality, based on van Tulder’s et al [27] guidelines. This was modified by calculating the yes answers rate of the different designs’ criteria and deeming 75% and above yes answers as high quality, while below 30% of yes answers as low quality. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines as described by Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services [24] were used to determine the strength of the evidence. The strength of the evidence was graded from insufficient, low, moderate to strong evidence depending on the number of articles within each theme considered to be of a certain quality [24]. In practise, this meant that the number of articles of a certain quality within the themes were calculated. If, for example, most of the articles within a theme was of high quality, there was strong evidence for the assumption of that theme to be correct.

Data extraction

An overview of reviewed articles [15] was used as a tool when analysing the data, provided by Jönköping University (appendix 3). A critical interpretative synthesis [15] was used to analyse the data as this can be used on a broad range of research. The focus was on purposive sample, thus focusing on the literature found rather than worrying about having a comprehensive literature on the subject. It contains a reciprocal analysis which compares similarities in the literature but also a refutational analysis which means that differences in the literature was explored [15].
Each article was coded per its result which helped in creating and naming themes. The themes were compared for similarities and differences and consequently interpreted [15]. This process was done in an Excel spreadsheet where all the reviewed articles were compiled. The first coding consisted of identifying the words of ‘occupational therapy’ and variations of the word ‘cognition’ in the titles, article objectives and results. In practise, this meant the words were made bold in the spreadsheet. After looking at the similarities and differences of the articles, the second coding of the articles took place by naming the themes. The spreadsheet was then sorted according to the theme names. The similar aspect in all articles was occupational therapy in relation to a psychiatric diagnosis with a cognitive dysfunction. The differences between the articles were in fact creating the themes (examples in appendix 4).

Results

The review produced 20 articles in total of which 13 were high quality articles [28-40] and seven of medium quality [41-47]. Of the 13 high quality articles, six were RCTs or controlled trials (CT) [30,33-35,38-39], three were qualitative studies such as interviews and focus groups [31-32, 36], one survey-based study [29], one a systematic review [28], one a general overview and one a descriptive cross-sectional study [37]. Of the articles considered to be of a medium quality, two were systematic literature reviews [41, 47], and five studies of various quantitative designs [42-46].
The overall population was represented by eight regarding dementia clients [31,34-35,37,43-44,47], five articles of schizophrenia clients [30,33,38-39,46], three of general mental illness [28,41-42], two articles about psychosis clients [32,36], two of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) clients [29,45] and one article about depression clients [40]. All these are psychiatric diagnoses that manifest cognitive impairment among the symptoms [2, 5].
Three themes surfaced from the literature review: occupational therapy as a cognitive intervention, specifically named as cognitive interventions used by occupational therapists and multi-professional cognitive interventions including occupational therapy. The difference between the themes are that in the first theme the improvement of cognitive abilities was an outcome among others after occupational therapy interventions. In the second theme the occupational therapy interventions main objective was to improve the cognitive abilities of the clients. The third theme describes the multi-professional collaboration including occupational therapy, to improve the psychosocial participation of clients with the improvement of cognitive abilities as one outcome.

Occupational therapy as a cognitive intervention

The major theme to surface in this study at hand was that occupational therapy could be considered as a cognitive intervention. Twelve articles indicated that the cognitive functioning improved after the clients had received occupational therapy, as a part of other health benefits as an outcome of occupational therapy. Of these twelve articles, eight were of high quality [28-29,33-36,38-39] and four of medium quality [41, 44-46], which rendered for strong evidence Four of the articles showed that occupational therapy for schizophrenia clients improved the cognitive functioning, but that occupational therapy also was beneficiary for improving cognition in dementia cases (3), MCI cases (2), general mental illness (2) and in one study of psychosis clients.
Regarding schizophrenia clients, the occupational therapists used interventions that were chosen by the clients themselves and improved on scores of positive and negative symptoms and were functional in their nature with a long-lasting effect [46]. Shimada et al [38] found that individual occupational therapy combined with group occupational therapy improved on neurocognition such as verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention, and executive function in this population. In this study, the individual occupational therapy was tailored to the individual needs of the client. The clients chose which occupational therapy group to attend. The group options were those of physical fitness, handicraft, cooking, music appreciation, recreation and psycho-education. Tanaka et al [39] discovered that early occupational therapy for clients with acute schizophrenia improved on their functional independence and in the cognitive domain.
Occupational therapy showed to improve on cognition in dementia clients in three articles. The occupational therapy can take place in the community using cognitive and behavioural interventions and make use of cognitive aids [34]. In supporting improved quality of live-in dementia clients and incorporating cognitive training, the occupational therapist supports improved cognition [35]. Even though occupational therapy appears to improve on cognition in this population, the role of the occupational therapist is often the one of assessor. For example, in Ireland, the occupational therapists focused on assessments such as cognitive and functional performance screening, and lesser attention was paid to occupational participation In Canada however, cognitive concerns were addressed more frequently than functional concerns by occupational therapists in regards of dementia clients with MCI [29]. Occupational therapy programmes were effective for positive changes in both the cognitive and emotional states of dementia clients with MCI. The changes were maintained up to 3 months after the therapeutic sessions, possibly due to the improvement in self-awareness, knowledge and skills that the occupational therapy programmes offered [45].
Occupational therapy interventions with a focus on participation and performance in occupations related to paid and unpaid employment and education for people with serious mental illness showed to be effective in a systematic review [28]. The interventions combined with cognitive or social skills training included occupation/activity-based and addressed performance skills, aspects of the environment, activity demands, and client factors. There was limited but positive evidence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) interventions that targeted specific home-making occupations such as grocery-shopping and cooking [28]. The same themes were found in another systematic review that investigated the effectiveness of interventions within occupational therapy, focusing on the recovery model in regards of community integration and normative life roles for adults with serious mental illness. Occupation and activity-based interventions and interventions addressing performance skills and performance patterns, aspects of the environment, and context, activity demands, and client factors were included in this study. The evidence for the effectiveness of life skills and IADLs training to improve performance is moderate, as is the evidence for neurocognitive training paired with skills training in the areas of work, social participation, and IADLs [41]. Finally, engaging in highly valued activities when suffering from psychosis in early age rendered for six well-being enhancing experiences, the cognitive state being one: making meaning, expressing thoughts and emotions, changing physical, emotional and cognitive states, cultivating skills, strengths, and virtues, connecting and belonging and contributing [36].

Specifically named as cognitive interventions used by occupational therapists

Six articles were found where the occupational therapist had used an intervention which was specifically named as a cognitive intervention and which improved the cognitive functioning of the participants. This means that the occupational therapy interventions set out to improve specifically the cognitive abilities. Three articles were of high quality [30, 37, 40] and three of medium quality [42, 43,47]. Three of the studies were with dementia clients, one depression, one schizophrenia and one general mental illness.
The cognitive interventions used by occupational therapists have a wide range of potential in particular within dementia care. Law et al [43] hypothesised that functional task exercise programmes, with an exercise component incorporated into daily living tasks, may be beneficiary to elderly individuals with cognitive impairment due to dementia. A structured functional task exercise programme was developed to facilitate the cognitive functions of working memory and executive function to enhance the daily functional status of older persons with MCI. The results of the study showed that the programme had significant effects on general cognitive functions, memory, executive function, functional status and problem-solving ability of older adults with dementia.
Some occupational therapists incorporate and adapt cognitive interventions familiar from psychology and neuropsychology such as cognitive stimulation and cognitive training [37, 47]. Robert et al [37] aimed to establish a profile of occupational therapy practice for cognitive interventions for clients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in an urban setting. Findings indicated that 52.3% of occupational therapists performed cognitive interventions with persons with AD. Of those, 82.4% reported using cognitive rehabilitation, 61.8% used cognitive stimulation and 50.0% used cognitive training. Intervention use varied across settings and differed according to severity of AD. The sessions are usually provided individually and often include the client’s caregiver. Yuill and Hollis [47] recognised the need for effective non‐pharmacological approaches for individuals with mild to moderate dementia. As cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) interventions aimed to better cognitive functions, they explored the effectiveness of CST and the potential of this approach in occupational therapy. The CST interventions corresponded with many values that are important to occupational therapy, such as respect of individuality, recognition of capacity for self‐determination, encouragement of participation in meaningful activities and optimisation of overall well‐being. The CST programmes also contained therapeutic goals and outcomes relevant to occupational therapy.
Other interventions within psychiatry and mental health named to be cognitive by occupational therapists and that have improved on cognition in terms of processing speed, memory and executive function are: an aerobic dance programme, life skills intervention such as food and money management and safe community participation and cognitive work hardening at the workplace [30, 42, 40]. Chen et al [30] found that an aerobic dance programme designed to better the cognitive functions of clients with schizophrenia, significantly improved on processing speed, memory and executive function. The dance programme used movements from everyday activities in a repetitive way that supported the recalling process. Helfrich et al found that clients with mental illness and who had been homeless were likely to have cognitive limitations, but that the functional impact of those limitations on life skills had not been explored. Life skills such as food management, self-care, community participation, money management and cleaning were taught to previously homeless persons and although participants with lower cognitive levels did not perform as well as those with higher cognitive levels, both groups showed improvement in life skills over time. Wisenthal and Krupa [40] presented in their paper the concept of cognitive work hardening for return to work for occupational therapy clients with depression. Characteristic for this cognitive occupational therapy intervention is a client-centred approach which is collaborative and consultative with the client. Cognitive work hardening supports goal attainment and successful return-to-work preparation for people with depression. It focuses on the workplace and the skills required by the client to succeed at work and thus bridges the gap from healthcare to the workplace to an eventual benefit for both clients and employers.

Multi-professional cognitive interventions including occupational therapy

Two high quality articles, thus indicating strong evidence, evaluated multi-professional (including occupational therapy) programmes’ efficacy in regards of psycho-social interventions [31-32]. One programme consisted of a tailor-made collaboration of occupational therapists, physiotherapists and welfare professionals for guidance of the clients to improve social participation of people with cognitive impairments. This programme was called the Social Fitness Programme31. The other study’s objective was to evaluate whether the TIME-programme in the United Kingdom met the needs of the young psychosis clients and to investigate the process of applying this kind of multi-professional collaborative service based on the perspective of the service providers. The programme combined such psychosocial therapies as early intervention, family intervention, cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy, and occupational therapy [32].
These programmes showed a mild improved cognitive functioning in dementia and psychosis clients and were appreciated by the clients, but the programmes had certain obstacles. Both studies showed barriers such as shared decision making or discrepancies between values and principles between health-care professionals or between those executing the policies and the policy-makers [31-32]. The Social Fitness Programme had difficulties recruiting participants as individuals with cognitive impairments were not motivated to improve on their social participation [31].


For Graduate Students

The Cognitive Psychology Program trains students to make substantive contributions to basic knowledge in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Graduate students develop research and analytical skills while learning to coordinate basic research with theory development and application. Students participate with faculty members in joint research projects investigating such questions as: How do people perform skilled movements? How do they perceive and classify objects, scenes, and events? How do they process language, learn, and remember? What happens in development, aging, and processing disorders? Approaches to these issues include experimental research (both behavioral and neuroimaging) and theoretical modeling. Students typically present findings at professional meetings and publish papers in professional journals.


2021 Schedule, Guidelines & Pattern

19 Feb 2021

(NRI Session 1)

26 Feb 2021

(NRI Session 2)

21 Mar 2021

(UG Session 1)

10 Apr 2021

(UG Session 2)

19 Jun 2021

(UG Session 3)

BA Communication & Media, English, Psychology
BA Journalism (Honours)
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BA Journalism, Psychology, English
BA Liberal Arts

BA Economics (Honours)
BSc Economics (Honours)
BSc Economics, Mathematics, Statistics
BSc Economics & Analytics
Bachelor of Computer Applications
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ALL Bachelor of Technology (BTech) Programs

Bachelor of Commerce (Regular)
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BCom (Strategic Finance) (Honours)
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Bachelor of Business Administration
Bachelor of Business Administration (Honours)
BBA Finance & International Business
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Guidelines/Instructions to the Candidates

PLEASE FOLLOW THE GIVEN GUIDELINES/INSTRUCTIONS/CODE of CONDUCT CAREFULLY


a) A working Mic and webcam enabled Computer/Laptop with good, stable internet connection and power backup is mandatory for taking up the online test.
b) Artificial Intelligence proctoring is enabled. The test will be automatically locked if there is a breach of threshold in the code of conduct by the test taker.

The software is capable of tracking eye movement, and navigating between test window and any other application running in the computer. The test portal

will capture both the Audio and Video of the test. Additionally, human proctoring may also be there from time to time.
c) There may be time alerts through the software, however it is the responsibility of the student to manage the time.
d) You must join the test at least 30 mins before the scheduled time to avoid delays due to technical glitches.
e) Impersonation/presence of another person other than the applicant will be treated as mal practice.
f) Copy of the Admit card issued by the University and Photo ID issued by the State or Central Government should be produced for verification at any point

during the test.
g) Presence or using the following items (a) Subject Text Books (b) Study Notes or any other written sheets (c) Formula Sheets (iv) Scientific Calculator and/or

such other gadgets during the test is strictly prohibited.
h) You must sit in front of the webcam connected to/of your computer/laptop in such a way that Proctor should be able to see you clearly and observe your

i) You should start attempting the first question within 20 minutes of the scheduled start time of the test.
j) Ensure to close all other softwares/applications/windows before start of the exam.
k) Do not use headphones, ear buds, or any other type of listening equipment during the exam.

l) Each question carries 1 mark for the right answer and a negative mark of 0.25 for the wrong answer. No marks are awarded or deducted for unattempted

questions.
m) Any violation from the above mentioned guidelines/instructions/code of conduct will be marked as &ldquoUnsatisfactory&rdquo by the system or the human proctor

which will result in termination of the test and will be treated as malpractice/misconduct.


Cognitive Ability Tests Topics

I) Numerical Reasoning

What sort of questions are included in this part?

  • a) Basic Numeracy: Undertaker basic math – 4 operations (subtraction, addition, division, multiplication), averages, fractions, and ratios.
  • b) Word problems: Study and solve mathematical questions given in text format.
  • c) Number series: Discover and follow patterns in a specific list of numbers.

What sort of questions are included in this part?

  • a) Vocabulary: Show your knowledge of the definitions and usages of various words.
  • b) Analogies: Discover relationships between two words and apply this relationship to an additional word.

III) Abstract Reasoning

What sort of questions are included in this part?

  • a) Odd One Out: Choose which shape doesn’t fit in a specific set.
  • b) Next in Series: Discover a progression pattern of shapes and find out which shape is next.
  • c) Matrices: Similar to ‘next in series’, but rather in a two-dimensional matrix format.
  • d) Analogies: Discover the relationship between a certain pair of shapes and apply this knowledge to another shape.

What sort of questions are included in this part?

  • a) Syllogisms: Come up with a conclusion from a certain number of premises.
  • b) Deduction and Conclusions: ‘Syllogisms’ in reverse – use the necessary information to form a certain conclusion.
  • c) Seating Arrangements: Discover the order of various elements in keeping with a given set of rules.

Cognitive Psychology Resource Guide

This resource guide is provided as a comprehensive list of sources and items of interest for students, practitioners and members of the general public who seek to learn more about the discipline of Cognitive Psychology and its sub-domains, as well as individuals interested in learning more about the topic. The resource guide is divided into broad categories, and each resource is annotated with a brief description. This resource guide also contains links to various professional associations, databases and journals to assist with research and applied practice in the area of Cognitive Psychology.

Included also are Cognitive Psychology educational resources, tests and tutorials that provide a more thorough understanding of the area of study. These educational resources are designed for both students and instructors to enhance learning and facilitate the dissemination of knowledge. Social media accounts of prominent names in the field are listed to keep updated with new developments in the discipline. The resource guide is designed to be useful for those who which to learn more about the history and origins of Cognitive Psychology, as well as work and trends in applied practice.


General cognition also makes the difference on the job, study finds

Job success requires the same levels of g--general cognitive ability--as school success, according to a new meta-analysis in APA's Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 86, No. 1).

To investigate the popular belief that g, as measured by IQ testing, predicts achievement in academics more so than in the workplace, Nathan R. Kuncel, PhD, and Sarah A. Hezlett, PhD, of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Deniz S. Ones, PhD, of the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, conducted a meta-analysis of 127 studies involving 20,352 participants in both graduate school and the work force. The researchers targeted results from studies that used the Miller Analogies Test (MAT)--a 100-item exam that covers subjects from history to math to science.

Kuncel says they chose the MAT, developed nearly 80 years ago for graduate school admissions, because it's one of a few tests used in both graduate school admissions and company hiring decisions.

His team found moderate to strong correlations between high g and high ratings in both school- and job-related domains. More specifically, high-g scorers showed the highest graduate school grade point averages, ratings by faculty, examination scores and Graduate Record Examination verbal scores, as well as the highest membership in professional organizations and employer ratings of job performance, potential and creativity.

Such findings are at odds with the views of g opponents, who dispute that one value can predict outcomes across all contexts and have proposed theories of separate or skill-based intelligences. Further, notes Kuncel, many people believe g does not predict job success because factors other than cognition--such as motivation and social skills--affect job performance.

Kuncel acknowledges that "there are other aspects of an individual that make a difference," but he says the findings suggest g can predict success in various settings, even if the test measuring it is designed for a specific context.

"There are learning and information-processing elements in both [academic and job] contexts, and that is predicted by g," Kuncel explains. "Life itself is a complex, ill-defined thing, and this capacity [for general cognitive ability] is important across many contexts."

Kuncel adds that he hopes the study's results help raise employer awareness of g. "Many organizations rely on methods of selecting employees that are not valid, such as ill-structured interviews that lead to opportunity for bias," Kuncel says. "It'd be nice if people became cognizant of this and made adjustments in hiring."


Upper Division

COGS 100. Cyborgs Now and in the Future (4)

Covers the theories of situated, distributed, enactive, and embodied cognition. Explains how cyborgs are a natural consequence of our current understanding of embodied minds embedded in culturally shaped niches how mental systems can be distributed over other people and things. Prerequisites:COGS 1 or COGS 10.

COGS 101A. Sensation and Perception (4)

An introduction to the experimental study of cognition with a focus on sensation and perception. Prerequisites: COGS 1.

COGS 101B. Learning, Memory, and Attention (4)

A survey of the experimental study of learning, memory, and attention. Topics include conditioning, automaticity, divided attention, memory systems, and the nature of mental representation. Prerequisites: COGS 1. Recommended: COGS 101A.

An introduction to structure of natural language, and to the cognitive processes that underline its acquisition, comprehension, and production. This course covers findings from linguistics, computer science, psychology, and cognitive neuroscience to provide an integrated perspective on human language abilities. Prerequisites: COGS 1 and 14A.

COGS 102A. Cognitive Perspectives (4)

Explores current theoretical frameworks of high-level human cognition that emphasize how we interact with the material, social, and cultural world. Themes include the philosophy and history of cognitive science, the role of artifacts, and how cognition extends beyond the individual. Prerequisites: COGS 1 and COGS 10.

COGS 102B. Cognitive Ethnography (4)

Examines memory, reasoning, language, culture, planning, and interaction directly in everyday, real-world settings. Focuses on ethnographic methods, their history, and their application. The course work includes projects in which students make observations of real-world activity and analyze their cognitive significance. Prerequisites: COGS 102A.

COGS 102C. Cognitive Design Studio (6)

This project-based course focuses on learning and applying the process of human-centered cognitive design. Students work in teams to design and evaluate a prototype application or redesign an existing system. Emphasizes contextual inquiry, user research, ideation, iterative design, and evaluation. Prerequisites: COGS 102B.

COGS 107A. Neuroanatomy and Physiology (4)

This first course in the sequence focuses on principles of brain organization, from neurons to circuits to functional networks. It explores developmental plasticity, neuronal connectivity, cellular communication, complex signaling, and how these various dimensions form functional brain systems. Prerequisites: BILD 12 or COGS 17.

COGS 107B. Systems Neuroscience (4)

This course focuses on the electrical dynamics of neurons and how their patterns relate to perception, thought, and action. Neural activity patterns underlying vision, touch, audition, proprioception, and head orientation are examined in detail. Also examined are motor control, sleep/wake state production, action planning, learning, memory, attention, spatial cognition and function of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and hippocampus. Prerequisites: COGS 107A.

COGS 107C. Cognitive Neuroscience (4)

This course reviews research investigating the neural bases for human mental processes, including processing of affective, social, linguistic, and visuospatial information, as well as memory, attention, and executive functions. Also discussed are brain development and brain aging, and the nature of intelligence and creativity. Prerequisites: COGS 107B and its prerequisites.

COGS 108. Data Science in Practice (4)

Data science is multidisciplinary, covering computer science, statistics, cognitive science and psychology, data visualization, artificial intelligence and machine learning, among others. This course teaches critical skills needed to pursue a data science career using hands-on programming and experimental challenges. Prerequisites: CSE 11 or CSE 8A or COGS 18 or DSC 10 or MAE 8.

COGS 109. Modeling and Data Analysis (4)

Exposure to the basic computational methods useful throughout cognitive science. Computing basic statistics, modeling learning individuals, evolving populations, communicating agents, and corpus-based linguistics will be considered. Prerequisites:COGS 14B, MATH 18 or MATH 31AH, and COGS 18 or CSE 7 or CSE 8A or CSE 11.

COGS 110. The Developing Mind (4)

(Cross-listed with HDS 121.) This course examines changes in thinking and perceiving the physical and social world from birth through childhood. Evidence of significant changes in encoding information, forming mental representations, and solving problems is culled from psychological research, cross-cultural studies, and cognitive science. Cross-listed course. HDS 121 has been renumbered from HDP 121. Students may receive credit for one of the following: COGS 110, HDS 121, or HDP 121. Prerequisites: COGS 1 or HDP 1 or HDS 1.

COGS 111. Beauty and the Brain (4)

What is beauty? The subjective experience of aesthetic appreciation dominates culture. But what determines this illusive quality? Why is it so important, how did it evolve, and how is it represented in the brain? Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

In this course we will explore the psychology, philosophy, and evolutionary origins of humor and laughter. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 115. Neurological Development and Cognitive Change (4)

This course provides an overview of neurological development and explores the relations between physiological change and the experience for the child from the prenatal period through adolescence. Prerequisites: BILD 10 or BILD 12 or COGS 107A or COGS 107B or COGS 17 or HDP 110.

COGS 116. Developmental Brain Disorders (4)

This course will survey brain disorders of childhood. Topics will include autism, ADHD, Tourette syndrome, anxiety disorders, conduct disorders, and other conditions. Emphasis is placed on what we know about the neural underpinnings, while also covering symptomatology and treatment. Prerequisites: BILD 12 or COGS 17 or COGS 107A or COGS 107B or PSYC 106.

COGS 118A. Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms (4)

This course introduces the mathematical formulations and algorithmic implementations of the core supervised machine learning methods. Topics in 118A include regression, nearest neighborhood, decision tree, support vector machine, and ensemble classifiers. COGS 118A-B may be taken in either order. Prerequisites:COGS 18 or CSE 8B or CSE 11 and MATH 18 or MATH 31AH and MATH 20E and MATH 180A and COGS 108 or COGS 109 or COGS 118B or CSE 150 or CSE 151 or CSE 158 or ECE 174 or ECE 175A.

COGS 118B. Introduction to Machine Learning II (4)

This course, with COGS 118A, forms a rigorous introduction to machine learning. Topics in 118B include maximum likelihood estimation, Bayesian parameter estimation, clustering, principal component analysis, and some application areas. COGS 118A-B may be taken in either order. Prerequisites:CSE 8B or CSE 11 and MATH 18 or MATH 31AH and MATH 20E and MATH 180A or consent of instructor.

COGS 118C. Neural Signal Processing (4)

This course will cover theoretical foundations and practical applications of signal processing to neural data. Topics include EEG/field potential methods (filtering, Fourier (spectral) analysis, coherence) and spike train analysis (reverse correlation, spike sorting, multielectrode recordings). Some applications to neural imaging (optical microscopy, fMRI) data will also be discussed. Prerequisites:MATH 18 or MATH 31AH, COGS 14B or PSYC 60, and COGS 108 or COGS 109.

COGS 118D. Mathematical Statistics for Behavioral Data Analysis (4)

Statistical methods for analyzing behavioral data. A mathematically sophisticated course covering both classical and Bayesian statistical methods for estimation, hypothesis testing, regression, and model comparison. Emphasis on both mathematical understanding of statistical methods as well as common applications. Prerequisites:MATH 18 or MATH 31AH and MATH 180A and COGS 108 or COGS 109, or consent of instructor.

COGS 119. Programming for Experimental Research (4)

This course will help students in the behavioral sciences (cognitive science, psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, and related fields) learn how to program experiments and analyze and present data. Prerequisites:COGS 14B and MATH 18 or MATH 31AH and MAE 8.

COGS 120. Interaction Design (5)

(Cross-listed with CSE 170.) Introduces fundamental methods and principles for designing, implementing, and evaluating user interfaces. Topics: user-centered design, rapid prototyping, experimentation, direct manipulation, cognitive principles, visual design, social software, software tools. Learn by doing: work with a team on a quarter-long design project. Recommended preparation: basic familiarity with HTML. Students may not receive credit for both COGS 120 and CSE 170. Prerequisites: CSE 11 or CSE 8B or DSC 30 and COGS 1 or COGS 187A or DSGN 1.

COGS 121. Human Computer Interaction Portfolio Design Studio (4)

Create a personal portfolio of web/mobile/product design projects, oral presentations, and practice pitches to stakeholders. Prerequisites: COGS 120 or CSE 170 and COGS 18 or CSE 8B or CSE 11 or DSC 30.

COGS 122. Start-up Studio (4)

Explores tools and processes for innovating novel business concepts to solve problems involving the interaction between humans and technology. Students will work with an interdisciplinary team to understand unmet user needs and to create a value proposition that balances technical feasibility, financial viability, and desirability. Prerequisites:DSGN 100 or COGS 187B or COGS 187A or COGS 120 or CSE 170.

COGS 123. Social Computing (4)

This course explores the intersection of social behavior and computational systems. Students will examine a range of organizational, technical, and business challenges related to social computing, and learn how to use tools to analyze, design, and build online communities. Prerequisites: COGS 102C or COGS 120 or COGS 187A or COGS 187B or DSGN 1.

COGS 124. HCI Technical Systems Research (4)

In this advanced project-based course, we study the state-of-the-art in research on technical systems for human-computer interaction (HCI). Students will deconstruct the systems described in top-tier HCI papers and work in teams to create novel technical systems of their own. Prerequisites:COGS 120 and COGS 121.

COGS 125. Advanced Interaction Design (4)

This is a studio class for students who are passionate about diving deep into interaction design and honing their design skills. Introduces social computing, input and interaction techniques, and information design. Students will regularly present work in a studio format. Prerequisites:CSE 11 or 8B and COGS 120 or CSE 170.

COGS 126. Thinking with Computers (4)

This course surveys the field of human-computer interaction and the ideas and technologies that have shaped its development. Prerequisites:COGS 120 or COGS 121 or CSE 170.

COGS 127. Data-Driven UX/Product Design (4)

Create a UX/product design case study for your portfolio team project with user research, data science, prototyping, and user testing. Prerequisites: COGS 18 or CSE 11 or CSE 8B or DSC 30 and COGS 1 or COGS 187A or DSGN 1.

COGS 128. Information Visualization (4)

This course frames information visualization as a quintessential cognitive science problem within our interdisciplinary field. Students learn conceptual and practical aspects of creating high-quality, interactive information displays to support a variety of cognitive tasks and then apply them to real-world data. Prerequisites: COGS 10 or DSGN 1 and COGS 108.

COGS 137. Practical Data Science in R (4)

Learn coding for data analysis using the R programming language. Course focus will be on practical and applied skills in asking data-informed questions, data wrangling, data visualization, building statistical learning models, and communicating your findings to advance your career. Prerequisites: COGS 14B or MATH 11 or PSYC 60.

COGS 138. Neural Data Science (4)

Project-based course in which students will use computational notebooks to perform exploratory data analyses and to test hypotheses in large neuroscience datasets, including the differences between unique neuron types, leveraging text mining of the neuroscience literature, and human neuroimaging analyses. Prerequisites: COGS 18 and COGS 118C.

COGS 142. Animal Communication (4)

This course introduces the study of animal communication, the key terminology, the remarkable communicative systems that several animal species possess, and the key similarities and differences between human and non-human animals’ communications. Prerequisites: COGS 14A.

COGS 143. Animal Cognition (4)

Examines the contrasts and parallels between primates and cetaceans in sensorimotor constraints, neuroanatomy, field behavior, and cognition in the lab, with a focus on the demands of competition and cooperation that helped shape the evolution of social cognition. Students may not receive credit for COGS 143 and COGS 143GS. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 144. Social Cognition: A Developmental and Evolutionary Perspective (4)

This course presents the building blocks of social cognition from a developmental and evolutionary perspective and focuses on how and when children develop these abilities and how humans compare to other species such as great apes, birds, and dogs. Prerequisites: COGS 14A-B.

COGS 151. Analogy and Conceptual Systems (4)

Human thought and meaning are deeply tied to the capacity for mapping conceptual domains onto each other, inducing common schemas and performing mental simulation. This course examines major aspects of this cognitive activity including metaphor, conceptual blending, and embodied cognition. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 152. Cognitive Foundations of Mathematics (4)

How the human mind/brain creates mathematics: embodiment, innovation, and creativity. The emergence and power of abstract concepts, such as infinity, infinitesimals, imaginary numbers, or zero. Cognitive approaches that connect mathematics to human thought in general. Prerequisites: COGS 1 or PHIL 1 or PSYC 1 or EDS (20 or 30 or 31) upper-division standing.

COGS 153. Language Comprehension (4)

The processes and representations involved in understanding language—processing words, syntax, semantics, and discourse—are examined in light of evidence from both psychological experiments and computer simulations. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 154. Communication Disorders in Children and Adults (4)

Neural bases of language use in normal adults, and neural bases of language and communication development in normal children. Evidence on the language and communication deficits in adults (especially aphasia and dementia) and children (specific language impairment, focal brain injury, retardation, and autism). Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 155. Gesture and Cognition (4)

Spontaneous gestures and their relationship to speech, cognition, brain, and culture. The course covers, among others, gesture and language development, gesture and conceptual systems, speech-gesture coproduction and its brain bases, evolution of language, and gestural behavior in special populations. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 156. Language Development (4)

A comprehensive survey of theory, method and research findings on language development in children ranging from the earliest stages of speech perception and communication at birth to refinements in narrative discourse and conventional fluency through middle childhood and adolescence. Prerequisites: upper-division standing and background in development psychology and/or linguistics is recommended.

COGS 157. Music and the Mind (4)

Explores how humans (and other species) process music, including pitch, meter, emotion, motor aspects, links to language, brain activity. Students should have experience reading musical notation. Prerequisites: COGS 101A or COGS 101B or COGS 101C.

COGS 160. Upper-Division Seminar on Special Topics (4)

Special topics in cognitive science are discussed. (May be repeated when topics vary.) Prerequisites: department approval.

COGS 163. Metabolic Disorders of the Brain (4)

Research is showing that cellular metabolic processes are mediating normal and abnormal brain function. For example, neurocognitive disorders often co-occur with metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and obesity. An understanding of these mechanisms will provide insight to new treatments for cognitive and neurological disorders. The course will cover topics on the role of abnormal cellular structure, genetic, epigenetic and pathogenic influences on synaptic signaling. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 164. Neurobiology of Motivation (4)

This course will address principles of motivation, valuation, and reward, spanning a large territory of topics, from rules of synaptic learning to classroom learning. Recommended preparation: courses in basic biology, physiology, COGS 107A or 107B or 107C, or courses in education. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 165. Neuroimaging of Cognition (4)

Introduction to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods for cognitive neuroscience research. This course will cover basic aspects of the physics and biological principles underlying MRI and fMRI, technical aspects of experimental design and data collection for fMRI, as well as basic data processing and analysis approaches. Prerequisites: COGS 107B or COGS 107C or PSYC 106 or PSYC 108.

COGS 169. Genetic Information for Behavior: From Single Cells to Mammals (4)

Behavior draws on a wide range of genes acting as a complex source of information. Model organisms—bacteria, Paramecium, C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice—have provided insight into how genes influence both innate and learned behaviors. Prerequisites:COGS 1 and 107A or permission of instructor.

COGS 170. Brain Waves Across Scales (4)

This course will provide an interactive and hands-on introduction to rhythms and large-scale electrical potentials of the brain. Topics will include the resonance properties of neurons, rhythmic interactions between neurons, the coordination of activity across large populations of neurons that is measurable in the local field potential (LFP) and electroencephalogram (EEG), the advantages of temporally coordinated neural activity, and relevant insights about the brain and cognitive disorders. Prerequisites: COGS 17 or BILD 12.

COGS 171. Mirror Neuron System (4)

This class will examine the neuroanatomy, physiology, and functional correlates of the human mirror neuron system and its putative role in social cognition, e.g., action understanding, empathy, and theory of mind. We will examine the developmental, neuroimaging, electrophysiological, as well as clinical evidence, for and against this hypothesis. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 172. Brain Disorders and Cognition (4)

A review of the patterns of impaired and intact cognitive abilities present in brain-damaged patients in terms of damage to one or more components of a model of normal cognitive functioning. Prerequisites: COGS 107A.

COGS 174. Drugs: Brain, Mind, and Culture (4)

This course explores how drugs interact with the brain/mind and culture. It covers evolutionary and historical perspectives, brain chemistry, pharmacology, expectancies and placebo effects, and models of addiction. It also provides a biopsychosocial survey of commonly used and abused substances. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 175. The Neuropsychological Basis of Alternate States of Consciousness (4)

This course will review the literature that correlates brain rhythms in the human EEG with aspects of cognition, behavioral states, neuropsycho-pharmacology, and psychopathology in order to understand the psychological and neurophysiological underpinnings of these experiences. Prerequisites: COGS 101A or COGS 107A.

COGS 176. From Sleep to Attention (4)

This course will combine an examination of the neural character of quiet and active sleep states and their potential functions with an examination of the different mechanisms by which the brain mediates attention to specific features of the world. Prerequisites: COGS 107A.

COGS 177. Space and Time in the Brain (4)

The course examines features of neural dynamics that map spatial and temporal relationships. Lectures will cover interval timing, mapping of item-to-observer position, mapping of observer-to-world position, and the conjunction of spatial and temporal coding in hippocampus. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

COGS 178. Genes, Brains, and Behavior (4)

Evidence for genetic mediation of behavioral and neural differences, mechanisms that may mediate these effects, and the roles of the environment and experience are discussed. Prerequisites: COGS 107A-B or consent of instructor.

COGS 179. Electrophysiology of Cognition (4)

Survey the theory and practice of using electrical recordings (event-related brain potentials) to study cognition and behavior including attention, language, mental chronometry, memory, and plasticity. Prerequisites: COGS 107A or COGS 17.

COGS 180. Decision Making in the Brain (4)

This course covers recent advances in the understanding of neural mechanisms and computational principles underlying the brain’s ability to make decisions. The role of various factors, as well as their neural encoding, will be considered, e.g., observation noise, reward, risk, internal uncertainty, emotional state, external incentives. Prerequisites:BILD 12 or COGS 17 and COGS 108 or COGS 109 or CSE 150A and MATH 18 or MATH 20B or MATH 31AH.

COGS 181. Neural Networks and Deep Learning (4)

This course will cover the basics about neural networks, as well as recent developments in deep learning including deep belief nets, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, long-short term memory, and reinforcement learning. We will study details of the deep learning architectures with a focus on learning end-to-end models for these tasks, particularly image classification. Students may receive credit for one of the following: COGS 181, CSE 151B, or CSE 154. Prerequisites:COGS 18 or CSE 11 or CSE 8B and MATH 18 or MATH 31AH and MATH 20E and MATH 180A and COGS 118A or COGS 118B or CSE 150 or CSE 151A or CSE 158 or ECE 174 or ECE 175A.

COGS 182. Introduction to Reinforcement Learning (4)

This course is an introduction to reinforcement learning, the subfield of machine learning concerned with how artificial agents learn to act in the world in order to maximize reward. Topics include MDPs, policy iteration, TD learning, Q-learning, function approximation, and deep RL. Prerequisites:COGS 18 or CSE 11 or CSE 8B and MATH 18 or MATH 31AH and MATH 180A and COGS 108 or COGS 109 or COGS 118B or CSE 150A or CSE 150B or CSE 151A or CSE 151B or CSE 158 or ECE 174 or ECE 175A.

COGS 184. Modeling the Evolution of Cognition (4)

This interdisciplinary course integrates data on evolutionary theory, hominid prehistory, primate behavior, comparative neuroanatomy, cognitive development, and collaboration. After lectures, readings, and discussion of the literature, students generate a detailed timeline of five million years of human cognitive evolution. Students may not receive credit for COGS 184 and COGS 184GS. Prerequisites: COGS 17 or COGS 107A or COGS 107B or COGS 107C or BILD 12.

COGS 185. Advanced Machine Learning Methods (4)

This course is an advanced seminar and project course that follows the introduction to machine learning courses. Advanced and new machine learning methods will be discussed and used. Prerequisites: COGS 118A.

COGS 187A. Usability and Information Architecture (4)

Examines the cognitive basis of successful web and multimedia design. Topics: information architecture, navigation, usability, graphic layout, transaction design, and how to understand user interaction. Prerequisites: COGS 18 or CSE 11 or CSE 8A and COGS 10 or DSGN 1.

COGS 187B. Practicum in Professional Web Design (4)

This course follows up on the basics of multimedia design taught in COGS 187A. Students will probe more deeply into selective topics, such as animation, navigation, graphical display of information, and narrative coherence. Prerequisites: COGS 187A or consent of instructor.

COGS 188. Artificial Intelligence Algorithms (4)

This class will cover a broad spectrum of machine learning algorithms. It builds on students’ previous exposure to machine learning. It covers new artificial intelligence algorithms ranging from topic models as used in the text data analysis to genetic algorithms. Students will not receive credit for both COGS 188 and CSE 151A. Prerequisites: COGS 109 or COGS 118A or COGS 118B.

COGS 189. Brain Computer Interfaces (4)

This course will discuss signal processing, pattern recognition algorithms, and human-computer interaction issues in EEG-based brain-computer interfaces. Other types of brain-computer interfaces will also be discussed. Prerequisites:COGS 108 or COGS 109 or COGS 118A or COGS 118B.

COGS 190A. Pre-Honors Project in Cognitive Science (4)

This course prepares students for the Cognitive Science Honors Program. The aim is to refine the research project and to teach students what a successfully written proposal entails. Students may be admitted to the Honors Program contingent upon completion and progress in the course. See “Cognitive Science Honors Program” section for more information. Course should be taken for a letter grade. Prerequisites: upper-division standing instructor and department approval.

COGS 190B. Honors Studies in Cognitive Science (4)

This course will allow cognitive science honors students to explore advanced issues in the field of cognitive science research. It will also provide the opportunity to develop a thesis on the topic of their choice and begin work under faculty supervision. See “Cognitive Science Honors Program” section for more information. Prerequisites: COGS 190A and formal admittance to the Cognitive Science Honors Program department stamp.

COGS 190C. Honors Thesis in Cognitive Science (4)

This course will provide honors candidates an opportunity to complete the research on and preparation of an honors thesis under close faculty supervision. Oral presentation of student’s thesis is required to receive honors additionally, student must receive grade of A– or better in 190B and 190C to receive honors. See “Cognitive Science Honors Program” section for more information. Prerequisites: COGS 190B with grade of A– or better and formal admittance to the Cognitive Science Honors Program.

COGS 190D. Preparation for Thesis Presentation (1)

This course is affiliated with the honors program (190A-B-C) and is required of honors students during spring quarter. Its aim is to prepare students to present research results to an audience. Emphasis will be on the oral presentation (organization, wording, graphics), but there will also be some discussion about written research reports. Seminar style format with occasional short lectures wherein students will practice oral presentations and provide constructive criticism to each other. Prerequisites: must be concurrently enrolled in 190B or 190C.

COGS 195. Instructional Apprenticeship in Cognitive Science (4)

Students, under the direction of the instructor, lead laboratory or discussion sections, attend lectures, and meet regularly with the instructor to help prepare course materials and grade papers and exams. Applications must be submitted to and approved by the department. P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites: upper-division standing 3.0 GPA instructor and department approval.

COGS 197. Cognitive Science Internship (2 or 4)

The student will undertake a program of practical research in a supervised work environment. Topics to be researched may vary, but in each case the course will provide skills for carrying out these studies. P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit up to three times. Prerequisites:upper-division standing 2.5 GPA department approval.

COGS 198. Directed Group Study (2 or 4)

This independent study course is for small groups of advanced students who wish to complete a one-quarter reading or research project under the mentorship of a faculty member. Students should contact faculty whose research interests them to discuss possible projects. P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites: upper-division standing 2.5 GPA consent of instructor and department approval.

COGS 199. Special Project (2 or 4)

This independent study course is for individual, advanced students who wish to complete a one-quarter reading or research project under the mentorship of a faculty member. Students should contact faculty whose research interests them to discuss possible projects. P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites: upper-division standing 2.5 GPA consent of instructor and department approval.


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