Information

Does neuroticism cause people to hurt others?

Does neuroticism cause people to hurt others?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Is neuroticism related to harming others? Is neuroticism related to increased criminal behaviour? And in this case, would it be useful to coach / help a neurotic person through psychotherapy?


I've edited your question somewhat; I hope I preserved its meaning.

Neuroticism relates to personal discomfort largely by definition, and probably to uncomfortable social interaction as well, though somewhat less by definition. Consider this hypothetical, mediated pathway:

Neuroticism $ ightarrow$ Anxiety $ ightarrow$ Social anxiety $ ightarrow$ Personal social discomfort $ ightarrow$ Others' discomfort

The first three of these paths are almost definitional; the last only assumes that people ordinarily feel more comfortable when interacting with others who are comfortable. Each step from neuroticism to others' discomfort changes the construct slightly, so the relationship attenuates across each step to whatever extent these mediators are all necessary, but I suspect the relationship is still reasonably strong from one end to the other. For a bit of empirical support (indirect - best I could find quickly), note that marriage satisfaction relates negatively to the neuroticism of one's partner (Fisher & McNulty, 2008), though this may be less true of women with neurotic husbands (Whiteford, 2010; for other moderators, see Larson, Blick, Jackson, & Holman, 2010).

The relationship between neuroticism and crime is somewhat more complex, largely because crime itself is diverse. Incarcerated populations are more neurotic (Dang & Sharma, 1995; Singh, Singh, Sinha, & Kumari, 1985; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1971; I also found support for this via negative emotionality in my own work as a research assistant in Robert Krueger's lab at the University of Minnesota in 2005), but neuroticism may not be the best trait predictor of delinquency (self-reported; Furnham & Thompson, 1991), antisocial behavior, or aggression - agreeableness seems to relate more strongly (negatively; Jones, Miller, & Lynam, 2011). Neuroticism relates to these, and to substance abuse and antisocial personality disorder, but not as strongly as to agreeableness or conscientiousness (both negative correlates; Ruiz, Pincus, & Schinka, 2008; see also Walters, 2014). Neuroticism doesn't predict criminal recidivism very well compared to demographic factors either (Gendreau, Little, & Goggin, 1996).

As @what implied in his response to your other question, "Would most people benefit from psychotherapy?" it seems safe enough to assume that anyone could benefit from psychotherapy, criminals included. Neuroticism is often undesirable from a personal standpoint, so neurotic individuals per se might be fairly motivated therapy clients, whereas antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is more ego-syntonic. ASPD is notoriously difficult to treat, though this reputation may be debatable. Wikipedia:

ASPD is considered to be among the most difficult personality disorders to treat [(Gabbard & Gunderson, 2000)][verification needed]. Because of their very low or absent capacity for remorse, individuals with ASPD often lack sufficient motivation and fail to see the costs associated with antisocial acts… They may only simulate remorse rather than truly commit to change: they can be seductively charming and dishonest, and may manipulate staff and fellow patients during treatment [(Oldham, Skodol, & Bender, 2005)][verification needed]. Studies have shown that outpatient therapy is not likely to be successful, however the extent to which persons with ASPD are entirely unresponsive to treatment may have been exaggerated [(Salekin, 2002)].

Those with ASPD may stay in treatment only as required by an external source, such as a parole. Residential programs that provide a carefully controlled environment of structure and supervision along with peer confrontation have been recommended [(Gabbard & Gunderson, 2000)]. There has been some research on the treatment of ASPD that indicated positive results for therapeutic interventions [(Derefinko & Widiger, 2008)]. Schema Therapy is also being investigated as a treatment for ASPD [(Bernstein, Arntz, & Vos, 2007)]. A review by Charles M. Borduin features the strong influence of Multisystemic therapy (MST) that could potentially improve this imperative issue. However this treatment requires complete cooperation and participation of all family members [(Gatzke & Raine, 2000)]

Therapists of individuals with ASPD may have considerable negative feelings toward clients with extensive histories of aggressive, exploitative, and abusive behaviors [(Gabbard & Gunderson, 2000)]. Rather than attempt to develop a sense of conscience in these individuals, therapeutic techniques should be focused on rational and utilitarian arguments against repeating past mistakes. These approaches would focus on the tangible, material value of prosocial behavior [(Beck, Freeman, & Davis, 2006); emphasis added].

An interesting interaction may occur between ASPD and neuroticism (via depression, a correlated emotional state) in predicting psychotherapeutic outcomes for substance abuse: patients with both ASPD and depression respond better than those with ASPD only (Gabbard, 2000). This further supports a mediated link between neuroticism and criminality:

Neuroticism $ ightarrow$ Substance abuse $ ightarrow$ Criminality

Neuroticism $ ightarrow$ Depression $ ightarrow$ Better outcomes for psychotherapy of substance abuse, given ASPD $ ightarrow$ Less recidivism? Worth testing at least!

References

- Beck, A. T., Freeman, A., & Davis, D. D. (2006). Cognitive therapy of Personality Disorders (2nd Ed.). Guilford Press.
- Bernstein, D. P., Arntz, A., & Vos, M. D. (2007). Schema focused therapy in forensic settings: Theoretical model and recommendations for best clinical practice. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 6(2), 169-183. Retrieved from http://www.schematherapytraining.com/storage/Bernstein.pdf.
- Dang, R., & Sharma, M. (1995). Study of neuroticism and socio-demographic factors amongst female undertrials. Indian Journal of Criminology, 23(2), 65-70.
- Derefinko, K. J., & Widiger, T. A. (2008). Antisocial personality disorder. In S. H. Fatemi & P. J. Clayton (Eds.), The Medical Basis of Psychiatry (pp. 213-226). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
- Eysenck, S. B., & Eysenck, H. J. (1971). A comparative study of criminals and matched controls on three dimensions of personality. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10(4), 362-366.
- Fisher, T. D., & McNulty, J. K. (2008). Neuroticism and marital satisfaction: The mediating role played by the sexual relationship. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(1), 112-122. Retrieved from http://www.recoveryonpurpose.com/upload/Neuroticism%20and%20Marital%20Satisfaction.pdf.
- Furnham, A., & Thompson, J. (1991). Personality and self-reported delinquency. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(6), 585-593.
- Gatzke, L. M., & Raine, A. (2000). Treatment and prevention implications of antisocial personality disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 2(1), 51-55.
- Gabbard, G. O. (2000). Psychotherapy of personality disorders. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 9(1), 1-6. Retrieved from http://vuir.vu.edu.au/19368/27/00jpr001.pdf.
- Gunderson, J. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (Eds.). (2008). Psychotherapy for personality disorders (Vol. 13). American Psychiatric Publishing.
- Gendreau, P., Little, T., & Goggin, C. (1996). A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works! Criminology, 34(4), 575-608.
- Jones, S. E., Miller, J. D., & Lynam, D. R. (2011). Personality, antisocial behavior, and aggression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(4), 329-337.
- Larson, J. H., Blick, R. W., Jackson, J. B., & Holman, T. B. (2010). Partner traits that predict relationship satisfaction for neurotic individuals in premarital relationships. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 36(5), 430-444.
- Oldham, J. M., Skodol, A. E., & Bender, D. S. (Eds.). (2007). The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of personality disorders. American Psychiatric Publishing.
- Ruiz, M. A., Pincus, A. L., & Schinka, J. A. (2008). Externalizing pathology and the five-factor model: A meta-analysis of personality traits associated with antisocial personality disorder, substance use disorder, and their co-occurrence. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(4), 365-388.
- Salekin, R. T. (2002). Psychopathy and therapeutic pessimism: Clinical lore or clinical reality? Clinical Psychology Review, 22(1), 79-112. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11564340_Psychopathy_and_therapeutic_pessimism._Clinical_lore_or_clinical_reality/file/60b7d5162d67bf28b8.pdf.
- Singh, U. P., Singh, L. B., Sinha, B., & Kumari, R. (1985). Extraversion, neuroticism and criminality: A comparative study of different criminal groups. Indian Journal of Social Work, 46(2), 259-266.
- Stone, M. H. (1993). Abnormalities of personality: Within and beyond the realm of treatment. WW Norton & Co.
- Walters, G. D. (2014). Drugs, crime, and their relationships: Theory, research, practice, and policy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
- Whiteford, N. R. T. (2010). Neuroticism, marital interaction, and relationship satisfaction: An exploration of affect mediation. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder).


Personality Traits Associated With Stress And Worry Can Be Hazardous To Your Health

Personality traits associated with chronic worrying can lead to earlier death, at least in part because these people are more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors, such as smoking, according to research from Purdue University.

"Research shows that higher levels of neuroticism can lead to earlier mortality, and we wanted to know why," said Daniel K. Mroczek, (pronounced Mro-ZAK) a professor of child development and family studies. "We found that having worrying tendencies or being the kind of person who stresses easily is likely to lead to bad behaviors like smoking and, therefore, raise the mortality rate.

"This work is a reminder that high levels of some personality traits can be hazardous to one's physical health."

Chronic worrying, anxiety and being prone to depression are key aspects of the personality trait of neuroticism. In this study, the researchers looked at how smoking and heavy drinking are associated with the trait. A person with high neuroticism is likely to experience anxiety or depression and may self-medicate with tobacco, alcohol or drugs as a coping mechanism.

They found that smoking accounted for about 25 percent to 40 percent of the association between high neuroticism and mortality. The other 60 percent is unexplained, but possibly attributed to biological factors or other environmental issues that neurotic individuals experience, Mroczek said.

The researchers analyzed data of 1,788 men and their smoking behavior and personality traits over a 30-year period from 1975 to 2005. The data was part of the VA Normative Aging Study, which is a long-term study of aging men based at the Boston VA Outpatient Clinic.

Mroczek and his co-authors, Avron Spiro III and Nicholas A. Turiano, published their findings in this month's Journal of Research in Personality.

A better understanding of the bridge between personality traits and physical health can perhaps help clinicians improve intervention and prevention programs, Mroczek said.

"For example, programs that target people high in neuroticism may get bigger bang for the buck than more widespread outreach efforts," he said. "It also may be possible to use personality traits to identify people who, because of their predispositions, are at risk for engaging in poor health behaviors such as smoking or excessive drinking."

The National Institute on Aging and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs supported this work.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Purdue University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Neuroticism, Genetic Mapping of

What Is Neuroticism, and Is It Genetic?

Neuroticism is a unique dimensional measure of personality thought to capture emotional stability and a temperamental sensitivity to negative stimuli. Indeed, it is a widely agreed upon higher order factor in many different personality constructs. Currently, three measures of personality are commonly used in genetic research: Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire, Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness (NEO) personality inventory. For Cloninger's measure of harm avoidance (HA) and Eysenck's measure of neuroticism (EPQ-N), there is some evidence that these different personality constructs are influenced by similar genetic and environmental variables. In the case of the EPQ-N, high scorers are conceived to be overly emotional, react strongly to stimuli, and find it difficult to recover after an emotionally stimulating experience, while low scorers are conceived to be calm, even tempered, and emotionally controlled. The genetic influence on neuroticism and harm avoidance has been widely assessed, and the estimates of heritability are 40–60% of the phenotypic variance. The EPQ-N is known to overlap genetically with many internalizing disorders, such as major depression, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and because of this, neuroticism has been used in psychiatric genetic research to identify the genetic variation causing individual differences in the susceptibility to both depression and anxiety.


What Causes Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

Upbringing and childhood environment may be key factors in what causes NPD, but genetics could play a role, too.

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a complex personality disorder that’s often misunderstood. When you think of NPD, a grandiose sense of self, deep need for admiration, and difficulty empathizing may come to mind.

Someone with NPD can appear charming and self-assured on the surface. While these charismatic traits may look like confidence, they’re often masking insecurities rather than coming from a place of self-esteem.

If you live with NPD, you might be highly sensitive to criticism or have strong reactions to speech or behaviors you see as an insult.

It’s likely that narcissistic personality disorder is caused by several factors, such as environmental circumstances (including the child-parent relationship) and genetics.

You’ve likely heard the phrase “He’s such a narcissist!” thrown around. But where does narcissistic personality disorder factor in?

While most people show behaviors that could be seen as “narcissistic” — like selfishness or entitlement — narcissistic personality disorder is different.

When narcissistic traits disrupt many areas of your life (like your relationships or career), it could mean you meet the criteria for a personality disorder.

In general, NPD consists of patterns that show up in two or more of these areas:

A clinician may diagnose narcissistic personality disorder if someone has five or more of these signs and symptoms:

  • feelings of self-importance or superiority
  • frequent thoughts about being good looking, powerful, or successful
  • beliefs that they’re separate, special, or above other people
  • a need to be looked up to by others
  • feelings of entitlement to special treatment or an expectation that others should cater to what they want
  • a tendency to take advantage of or exploit others
  • difficulty empathizing with other people’s needs, desires, or emotions
  • feelings of envy toward others, or beliefs that other people envy them
  • behaviors that seem arrogant or proud

In general, there are at least two subtypes of narcissism: grandiose and vulnerable.

  • Grandiose narcissism is what most people may think of as narcissism. People with grandiose narcissism may be more extraverted, have low levels of neuroticism, and openly express feelings of superiority.
  • Vulnerable narcissism shares the same basic traits of NPD, but may involve more hidden thoughts and behaviors. Those with vulnerable narcissism tend to have higher levels of neuroticism and need more reassurance.

While they may still feel superiority, people with a vulnerable narcissism subtype tend to be fearful of criticism. In some cases, they may stay away from others as a result.

Environmental factors — such as culture and parenting — could contribute to the development of narcissistic personality disorder.

Some research suggests that narcissism scores were higher in individualistic cultures (which focus more on each person’s rights and goals) compared with collectivistic cultures (which focus more on what’s best for the group).

In the same study, researchers compared narcissistic traits among people who had grown up in former West Germany (an individualistic culture) to those who’d grown up in former East Germany (a more collectivistic culture).

The findings showed that narcissism was higher and self-esteem was lower in those who grew up in West Germany compared to East Germany.

In addition to culture, research suggests that childhood experiences could play an important role in causing NPD.

Negative childhood experiences, like being rejected or criticized by parents, may contribute to NPD in adulthood. At the same time, too much praise from parents could also lead to NPD.


Why Do Hurt People Hurt People?

When we are hurting, it may seem that the whole world is closing in on us, but in reality, it’s not. It’s our perception of the situation. Sometimes a simple ray of sunshine through a kind act or word can turn your rain into a rainbow, and if we give our rainbows a little time after the storm, they will appear. But truthfully, this is not how many of us deal with a painful situation. Often times when we hurt, we have a tendency to want to hurt others and lash out at those that are closest to us. We hold grudges, say hurtful things and even engage in hurtful actions, many times thinking that this will be a means to “get back” at the other person and to “let them know how it feels”.

What problem does this solve? More often than not, this does not solve the problem. It usually only makes the problem worse and makes you feel even miserable than you did before. When this takes place, a snowball effect happens. You’re still hurting, you hurt someone else and their hurt may trickle down to someone else. Overall with just one action, you can have a negative effect on someone’s life and the lives of others. Don’t hurt others just because you’re in pain this will not solve the problem and only will make things even worse.

So we ask the question, how can I turn this one negative event into something positive?

The key is FORGIVENESS and GRATITUDE!

The truth is, holding on to anger only ends up hurting you in the long run. These things manifest themselves in physical symptoms: headaches, gastrointestinal problems, signs of more rapid aging, as well as internal symptoms, not being able to sleep at night, lose of appetite and not so positive change in moods.

Do you know that person that you try to avoid at all costs because you just know it’s not a good day for them (any day) and they show it and complain about it. This might be a really good person, but they’ve allowed their feelings, their anger, someone else’s actions to lead them to an unhappy state and they carry that unhappiness everywhere they go. Are you THAT person? I certainly hope not. But the truth is, you must first you admit that you have a problem. And then you can work on the problem. You don’t have to continue to live that way. Change is possible. As a matter of fact, everyday we have a opportunity to change for the better. Isn’t that wonderful?

Therefore I charge you to:

“Enjoy the little things, for one day you may look back and realize they were the big things.”

Each day, ask yourself the simple question: What LITTLE things do I have to be grateful for today?

Are you able to function somewhat independently? BE GRATEFUL

Do you have someone to love and someone who loves you back? BE GRATEFUL

Do you have clothes to wear? BE GRATEFUL

Is there someone that will just call you and say, “I ways just checking on you to see how you were doing”. BE GRATEFUL

Have you eaten today (It may not be steak and lobster or BBQ and salad, but you ate)? BE GRATEFUL

Can you hear the birds singing? BE GRATEFUL

Are you able to breathe without the assistance of a ventilator or are you able to dress yourself? BE GRATEFUL

Can you feel the nighttime breeze? BE GRATEFUL

Can you feel the warmth of the sun? BE GRATEFUL

Recognizing these little things will help you to realize that these are really big things that we often take for granted.

You have more than most!

When you glow around with an attitude of gratitude, things can’t help but get better!


Hurting people tend to hurt others, whether consciously or unconsciously. This is because they are hurt and are in need of healing – the kind that only Christ can bring.

Sadly, many people who are carrying hurts are left to deal with their feelings of pain or loss by themselves. When left alone, the hurts that are not healed slowly become a poison that causes a person to become bitter and cynical. The good thing is that our hurts can be healed by Christ's love on the cross.

What causes hurts?

Hurts are caused by sin itself. We remember that during the time of creation, all that God had made was "good." Nothing was subject to corruption, to decay, and to pain. Think about it.

When God made all life, He meant that man and animals will eat from all vegetation. There was no struggle for what we call supremacy in the food chain. Lions eat with lambs. Adam probably had fun passing bananas to monkeys and apples to anteaters.

But after their fall, Adam and Eve felt the loss of all that bliss: shame and nakedness crept in and innocence was gone. The salads suddenly became unappetising to some animals who started to eat the smaller animals. Adam and Eve felt the need to hide from God because of their sin.

And God became separated from the man He created, all because of sin.

Sin caused all of the decay, destruction and loss that all mankind feels and sees today. Sin caused all the hurts that we have.

So why do hurting people hurt?

All of us are longing for that which only God can give. Read through the news and you see people fighting for peace. Others enslave themselves just to get some comfort and provision. Some spend a high price for enjoyment which is just passing, and then spend more when newer models come out.

We all strive to save ourselves from pain and hurts, enough that when we see others doing or having it better than we do, we try to inflict upon them the pain that we feel. Consider James 4:1-3, which says:

"What is causing the quarrels and fights among you? Don't they come from the evil desires at war within you? You want what you don't have, so you scheme and kill to get it. You are jealous of what others have, but you can't get it, so you fight and wage war to take it away from them. Yet you don't have what you want because you don't ask God for it. And even when you ask, you don't get it because your motives are all wrong—you want only what will give you pleasure."

The solution

Friends, it is only when we find our healing, comfort and completeness in God that we stop riding this vicious cycle of hurting people hurting others. God has planted eternity in the heart of man (see Ecclesiastes 3:11), and that eternity can only be made joyful when we are in Christ, in the Lord our God. Remember, by Christ's stripes we are healed (see Isaiah 53:5).


Abstract

Neuroticism's prospective association with common mental disorders (CMDs) has fueled the assumption that neuroticism is an independent etiologically informative risk factor. This vulnerability model postulates that neuroticism sets in motion processes that lead to CMDs. However, four other models seek to explain the association, including the spectrum model (manifestations of the same process), common cause model (shared determinants), state and scar models (CMD episode adds temporary/permanent neuroticism). To examine their validity we reviewed literature on confounding, operational overlap, stability and change, determinants, and treatment effects. None of the models is able to account for (virtually) all findings. The state and scar model cannot explain the prospective association. The spectrum model has some relevance, especially for internalizing disorders. Common causes are most important but the vulnerability model cannot be excluded although confounding of the prospective association by baseline symptoms and psychiatric history is substantial. In fact, some of the findings, such as interactions with stress and the small decay of neuroticism's effect over time, are consistent with the vulnerability model. We describe research designs that discriminate the remaining models and plea for deconstruction of neuroticism. Neuroticism is etiologically not informative yet but useful as an efficient marker of non-specified general risk.


"Did I do something wrong? Is everything okay?"

A hallmark sign of neuroses is chronic worrying. Worrying can be a sign of anxiety, but it also indicates neuroses. A neurotic person worries about their behavior and how others see them. They are fearful that others dislike them, so they might ask for reassurance a lot. It can be distressing to those around them when they are constantly asking, "Did I do something wrong? Is everything okay." It's normal to worry, but when your work or relationships suffer from worry, it can be a sign of neuroticism.


Worrying About Worry: Some Types of Neuroticism May Promote Greater Health Vigilance

It’s safe to say COVID-19 has given each of us an abundance of things to worry about. In addition to the stress brought on by social distancing, homeschooling, and shifting professional circumstances, the coronavirus pandemic also forces us to confront the nature of worry itself: When a threat is real, where exactly is the line between allowing anxiety to rule our lives and worrying just enough to keep ourselves and those we love safe?

In previous research, people high in neuroticism, a personality trait associated with anxiety, worry, and fear, have been found to be less physically healthy and more likely to be diagnosed with mental health disorders. New research in Current Directions in Psychological Science suggests that individuals can score high in neuroticism for very different reasons, however. Individuals who score highly due to general feelings of anxiety and tension do indeed appear to have worse health outcomes, write Alexander Weiss and APS James McKeen Cattell Fellow Ian J. Deary (University of Edinburgh), but those who report more concrete feelings of vulnerability may have better physical health than average due to increased bodily vigilance.

“Neuroticism may be related to health-promoting behaviors in some contexts, health-harming behaviors in other contexts, and health-neutral behaviors in still other contexts,” Weiss and Deary explain.

The researchers note that while some studies have found evidence of a link between high neuroticism and impulsive health-harming behaviors such as smoking, for example, others suggest that high neuroticism paired with high conscientiousness, a personality trait associated with self-control and long-term planning, may be protective against such health risks.

To further examine how “anxious-tense neuroticism” and “worried-vulnerable neuroticism” influence health outcomes, Weiss, Deary, and colleagues analyzed data collected from 321,465 participants available through the UK Biobank, a large medical research project that collected data from individuals aged 40-69 years from 2006 to 2015.

In the 2017 study in Psychological Science, Weiss and Deary found that participants who had self-reported high levels of anxious-tense neuroticism (e.g., answering yes to “Would you call yourself a nervous person?”) were 6% more likely than average to have died of any cause, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and accidents, during the study period of 2006 to 2015. Individuals who had scored themselves high in worried-vulnerable neuroticism (e.g., “Are you a worrier?” or “Are your feelings easily hurt?”), on the other hand, were 8% less likely than average to die during the same period.

Weiss and Deary also investigated the role of genetics in neuroticism by comparing the genomes of 270,059 UK Biobank participants. This revealed that general neuroticism, anxious-tense neuroticism, and worried-vulnerable neuroticism were all associated with specific gene variants in different regions of the genome. Additionally, while the researchers found that all of these high neuroticism variants were associated with increased risk of mental health disorders, genes associated with worried-vulnerable neuroticism were linked to better physical health outcomes.

“The special neuroticism factor, whose items relate to being worried and feeling vulnerable . . . may be related to better health because it promotes health vigilance,” Weiss and Deary suggest. These individuals may be more likely to report symptoms, and thus more likely to be diagnosed and treated at earlier stages of a disease.

These findings reflect the multifaceted nature of neuroticism, Weiss and Deary note in the 2020 study.

“Although there are few ways that people can have very low or very high levels of neuroticism (they would have to have very high or very low levels of all facets), as one moves away from these extremes, there are many ways that people can get the same score,” the authors explain.

It’s also possible for two people with the same or very different neuroticism scores to be equally at risk of a particular health outcome due to the way health risks interact, they continue.

“As a medical or psychological professional, or as a friend, loved one, or acquaintance, we often tell others not to worry so much. Health-wise, we have found phenotypic and genetic evidence for an upside to worry,” Weiss and Deary conclude.


What Causes Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

Upbringing and childhood environment may be key factors in what causes NPD, but genetics could play a role, too.

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a complex personality disorder that’s often misunderstood. When you think of NPD, a grandiose sense of self, deep need for admiration, and difficulty empathizing may come to mind.

Someone with NPD can appear charming and self-assured on the surface. While these charismatic traits may look like confidence, they’re often masking insecurities rather than coming from a place of self-esteem.

If you live with NPD, you might be highly sensitive to criticism or have strong reactions to speech or behaviors you see as an insult.

It’s likely that narcissistic personality disorder is caused by several factors, such as environmental circumstances (including the child-parent relationship) and genetics.

You’ve likely heard the phrase “He’s such a narcissist!” thrown around. But where does narcissistic personality disorder factor in?

While most people show behaviors that could be seen as “narcissistic” — like selfishness or entitlement — narcissistic personality disorder is different.

When narcissistic traits disrupt many areas of your life (like your relationships or career), it could mean you meet the criteria for a personality disorder.

In general, NPD consists of patterns that show up in two or more of these areas:

A clinician may diagnose narcissistic personality disorder if someone has five or more of these signs and symptoms:

  • feelings of self-importance or superiority
  • frequent thoughts about being good looking, powerful, or successful
  • beliefs that they’re separate, special, or above other people
  • a need to be looked up to by others
  • feelings of entitlement to special treatment or an expectation that others should cater to what they want
  • a tendency to take advantage of or exploit others
  • difficulty empathizing with other people’s needs, desires, or emotions
  • feelings of envy toward others, or beliefs that other people envy them
  • behaviors that seem arrogant or proud

In general, there are at least two subtypes of narcissism: grandiose and vulnerable.

  • Grandiose narcissism is what most people may think of as narcissism. People with grandiose narcissism may be more extraverted, have low levels of neuroticism, and openly express feelings of superiority.
  • Vulnerable narcissism shares the same basic traits of NPD, but may involve more hidden thoughts and behaviors. Those with vulnerable narcissism tend to have higher levels of neuroticism and need more reassurance.

While they may still feel superiority, people with a vulnerable narcissism subtype tend to be fearful of criticism. In some cases, they may stay away from others as a result.

Environmental factors — such as culture and parenting — could contribute to the development of narcissistic personality disorder.

Some research suggests that narcissism scores were higher in individualistic cultures (which focus more on each person’s rights and goals) compared with collectivistic cultures (which focus more on what’s best for the group).

In the same study, researchers compared narcissistic traits among people who had grown up in former West Germany (an individualistic culture) to those who’d grown up in former East Germany (a more collectivistic culture).

The findings showed that narcissism was higher and self-esteem was lower in those who grew up in West Germany compared to East Germany.

In addition to culture, research suggests that childhood experiences could play an important role in causing NPD.

Negative childhood experiences, like being rejected or criticized by parents, may contribute to NPD in adulthood. At the same time, too much praise from parents could also lead to NPD.


Personality Traits Associated With Stress And Worry Can Be Hazardous To Your Health

Personality traits associated with chronic worrying can lead to earlier death, at least in part because these people are more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors, such as smoking, according to research from Purdue University.

"Research shows that higher levels of neuroticism can lead to earlier mortality, and we wanted to know why," said Daniel K. Mroczek, (pronounced Mro-ZAK) a professor of child development and family studies. "We found that having worrying tendencies or being the kind of person who stresses easily is likely to lead to bad behaviors like smoking and, therefore, raise the mortality rate.

"This work is a reminder that high levels of some personality traits can be hazardous to one's physical health."

Chronic worrying, anxiety and being prone to depression are key aspects of the personality trait of neuroticism. In this study, the researchers looked at how smoking and heavy drinking are associated with the trait. A person with high neuroticism is likely to experience anxiety or depression and may self-medicate with tobacco, alcohol or drugs as a coping mechanism.

They found that smoking accounted for about 25 percent to 40 percent of the association between high neuroticism and mortality. The other 60 percent is unexplained, but possibly attributed to biological factors or other environmental issues that neurotic individuals experience, Mroczek said.

The researchers analyzed data of 1,788 men and their smoking behavior and personality traits over a 30-year period from 1975 to 2005. The data was part of the VA Normative Aging Study, which is a long-term study of aging men based at the Boston VA Outpatient Clinic.

Mroczek and his co-authors, Avron Spiro III and Nicholas A. Turiano, published their findings in this month's Journal of Research in Personality.

A better understanding of the bridge between personality traits and physical health can perhaps help clinicians improve intervention and prevention programs, Mroczek said.

"For example, programs that target people high in neuroticism may get bigger bang for the buck than more widespread outreach efforts," he said. "It also may be possible to use personality traits to identify people who, because of their predispositions, are at risk for engaging in poor health behaviors such as smoking or excessive drinking."

The National Institute on Aging and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs supported this work.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Purdue University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Abstract

Neuroticism's prospective association with common mental disorders (CMDs) has fueled the assumption that neuroticism is an independent etiologically informative risk factor. This vulnerability model postulates that neuroticism sets in motion processes that lead to CMDs. However, four other models seek to explain the association, including the spectrum model (manifestations of the same process), common cause model (shared determinants), state and scar models (CMD episode adds temporary/permanent neuroticism). To examine their validity we reviewed literature on confounding, operational overlap, stability and change, determinants, and treatment effects. None of the models is able to account for (virtually) all findings. The state and scar model cannot explain the prospective association. The spectrum model has some relevance, especially for internalizing disorders. Common causes are most important but the vulnerability model cannot be excluded although confounding of the prospective association by baseline symptoms and psychiatric history is substantial. In fact, some of the findings, such as interactions with stress and the small decay of neuroticism's effect over time, are consistent with the vulnerability model. We describe research designs that discriminate the remaining models and plea for deconstruction of neuroticism. Neuroticism is etiologically not informative yet but useful as an efficient marker of non-specified general risk.


Why Do Hurt People Hurt People?

When we are hurting, it may seem that the whole world is closing in on us, but in reality, it’s not. It’s our perception of the situation. Sometimes a simple ray of sunshine through a kind act or word can turn your rain into a rainbow, and if we give our rainbows a little time after the storm, they will appear. But truthfully, this is not how many of us deal with a painful situation. Often times when we hurt, we have a tendency to want to hurt others and lash out at those that are closest to us. We hold grudges, say hurtful things and even engage in hurtful actions, many times thinking that this will be a means to “get back” at the other person and to “let them know how it feels”.

What problem does this solve? More often than not, this does not solve the problem. It usually only makes the problem worse and makes you feel even miserable than you did before. When this takes place, a snowball effect happens. You’re still hurting, you hurt someone else and their hurt may trickle down to someone else. Overall with just one action, you can have a negative effect on someone’s life and the lives of others. Don’t hurt others just because you’re in pain this will not solve the problem and only will make things even worse.

So we ask the question, how can I turn this one negative event into something positive?

The key is FORGIVENESS and GRATITUDE!

The truth is, holding on to anger only ends up hurting you in the long run. These things manifest themselves in physical symptoms: headaches, gastrointestinal problems, signs of more rapid aging, as well as internal symptoms, not being able to sleep at night, lose of appetite and not so positive change in moods.

Do you know that person that you try to avoid at all costs because you just know it’s not a good day for them (any day) and they show it and complain about it. This might be a really good person, but they’ve allowed their feelings, their anger, someone else’s actions to lead them to an unhappy state and they carry that unhappiness everywhere they go. Are you THAT person? I certainly hope not. But the truth is, you must first you admit that you have a problem. And then you can work on the problem. You don’t have to continue to live that way. Change is possible. As a matter of fact, everyday we have a opportunity to change for the better. Isn’t that wonderful?

Therefore I charge you to:

“Enjoy the little things, for one day you may look back and realize they were the big things.”

Each day, ask yourself the simple question: What LITTLE things do I have to be grateful for today?

Are you able to function somewhat independently? BE GRATEFUL

Do you have someone to love and someone who loves you back? BE GRATEFUL

Do you have clothes to wear? BE GRATEFUL

Is there someone that will just call you and say, “I ways just checking on you to see how you were doing”. BE GRATEFUL

Have you eaten today (It may not be steak and lobster or BBQ and salad, but you ate)? BE GRATEFUL

Can you hear the birds singing? BE GRATEFUL

Are you able to breathe without the assistance of a ventilator or are you able to dress yourself? BE GRATEFUL

Can you feel the nighttime breeze? BE GRATEFUL

Can you feel the warmth of the sun? BE GRATEFUL

Recognizing these little things will help you to realize that these are really big things that we often take for granted.

You have more than most!

When you glow around with an attitude of gratitude, things can’t help but get better!


"Did I do something wrong? Is everything okay?"

A hallmark sign of neuroses is chronic worrying. Worrying can be a sign of anxiety, but it also indicates neuroses. A neurotic person worries about their behavior and how others see them. They are fearful that others dislike them, so they might ask for reassurance a lot. It can be distressing to those around them when they are constantly asking, "Did I do something wrong? Is everything okay." It's normal to worry, but when your work or relationships suffer from worry, it can be a sign of neuroticism.


Worrying About Worry: Some Types of Neuroticism May Promote Greater Health Vigilance

It’s safe to say COVID-19 has given each of us an abundance of things to worry about. In addition to the stress brought on by social distancing, homeschooling, and shifting professional circumstances, the coronavirus pandemic also forces us to confront the nature of worry itself: When a threat is real, where exactly is the line between allowing anxiety to rule our lives and worrying just enough to keep ourselves and those we love safe?

In previous research, people high in neuroticism, a personality trait associated with anxiety, worry, and fear, have been found to be less physically healthy and more likely to be diagnosed with mental health disorders. New research in Current Directions in Psychological Science suggests that individuals can score high in neuroticism for very different reasons, however. Individuals who score highly due to general feelings of anxiety and tension do indeed appear to have worse health outcomes, write Alexander Weiss and APS James McKeen Cattell Fellow Ian J. Deary (University of Edinburgh), but those who report more concrete feelings of vulnerability may have better physical health than average due to increased bodily vigilance.

“Neuroticism may be related to health-promoting behaviors in some contexts, health-harming behaviors in other contexts, and health-neutral behaviors in still other contexts,” Weiss and Deary explain.

The researchers note that while some studies have found evidence of a link between high neuroticism and impulsive health-harming behaviors such as smoking, for example, others suggest that high neuroticism paired with high conscientiousness, a personality trait associated with self-control and long-term planning, may be protective against such health risks.

To further examine how “anxious-tense neuroticism” and “worried-vulnerable neuroticism” influence health outcomes, Weiss, Deary, and colleagues analyzed data collected from 321,465 participants available through the UK Biobank, a large medical research project that collected data from individuals aged 40-69 years from 2006 to 2015.

In the 2017 study in Psychological Science, Weiss and Deary found that participants who had self-reported high levels of anxious-tense neuroticism (e.g., answering yes to “Would you call yourself a nervous person?”) were 6% more likely than average to have died of any cause, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and accidents, during the study period of 2006 to 2015. Individuals who had scored themselves high in worried-vulnerable neuroticism (e.g., “Are you a worrier?” or “Are your feelings easily hurt?”), on the other hand, were 8% less likely than average to die during the same period.

Weiss and Deary also investigated the role of genetics in neuroticism by comparing the genomes of 270,059 UK Biobank participants. This revealed that general neuroticism, anxious-tense neuroticism, and worried-vulnerable neuroticism were all associated with specific gene variants in different regions of the genome. Additionally, while the researchers found that all of these high neuroticism variants were associated with increased risk of mental health disorders, genes associated with worried-vulnerable neuroticism were linked to better physical health outcomes.

“The special neuroticism factor, whose items relate to being worried and feeling vulnerable . . . may be related to better health because it promotes health vigilance,” Weiss and Deary suggest. These individuals may be more likely to report symptoms, and thus more likely to be diagnosed and treated at earlier stages of a disease.

These findings reflect the multifaceted nature of neuroticism, Weiss and Deary note in the 2020 study.

“Although there are few ways that people can have very low or very high levels of neuroticism (they would have to have very high or very low levels of all facets), as one moves away from these extremes, there are many ways that people can get the same score,” the authors explain.

It’s also possible for two people with the same or very different neuroticism scores to be equally at risk of a particular health outcome due to the way health risks interact, they continue.

“As a medical or psychological professional, or as a friend, loved one, or acquaintance, we often tell others not to worry so much. Health-wise, we have found phenotypic and genetic evidence for an upside to worry,” Weiss and Deary conclude.


Neuroticism, Genetic Mapping of

What Is Neuroticism, and Is It Genetic?

Neuroticism is a unique dimensional measure of personality thought to capture emotional stability and a temperamental sensitivity to negative stimuli. Indeed, it is a widely agreed upon higher order factor in many different personality constructs. Currently, three measures of personality are commonly used in genetic research: Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire, Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness (NEO) personality inventory. For Cloninger's measure of harm avoidance (HA) and Eysenck's measure of neuroticism (EPQ-N), there is some evidence that these different personality constructs are influenced by similar genetic and environmental variables. In the case of the EPQ-N, high scorers are conceived to be overly emotional, react strongly to stimuli, and find it difficult to recover after an emotionally stimulating experience, while low scorers are conceived to be calm, even tempered, and emotionally controlled. The genetic influence on neuroticism and harm avoidance has been widely assessed, and the estimates of heritability are 40–60% of the phenotypic variance. The EPQ-N is known to overlap genetically with many internalizing disorders, such as major depression, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and because of this, neuroticism has been used in psychiatric genetic research to identify the genetic variation causing individual differences in the susceptibility to both depression and anxiety.


Hurting people tend to hurt others, whether consciously or unconsciously. This is because they are hurt and are in need of healing – the kind that only Christ can bring.

Sadly, many people who are carrying hurts are left to deal with their feelings of pain or loss by themselves. When left alone, the hurts that are not healed slowly become a poison that causes a person to become bitter and cynical. The good thing is that our hurts can be healed by Christ's love on the cross.

What causes hurts?

Hurts are caused by sin itself. We remember that during the time of creation, all that God had made was "good." Nothing was subject to corruption, to decay, and to pain. Think about it.

When God made all life, He meant that man and animals will eat from all vegetation. There was no struggle for what we call supremacy in the food chain. Lions eat with lambs. Adam probably had fun passing bananas to monkeys and apples to anteaters.

But after their fall, Adam and Eve felt the loss of all that bliss: shame and nakedness crept in and innocence was gone. The salads suddenly became unappetising to some animals who started to eat the smaller animals. Adam and Eve felt the need to hide from God because of their sin.

And God became separated from the man He created, all because of sin.

Sin caused all of the decay, destruction and loss that all mankind feels and sees today. Sin caused all the hurts that we have.

So why do hurting people hurt?

All of us are longing for that which only God can give. Read through the news and you see people fighting for peace. Others enslave themselves just to get some comfort and provision. Some spend a high price for enjoyment which is just passing, and then spend more when newer models come out.

We all strive to save ourselves from pain and hurts, enough that when we see others doing or having it better than we do, we try to inflict upon them the pain that we feel. Consider James 4:1-3, which says:

"What is causing the quarrels and fights among you? Don't they come from the evil desires at war within you? You want what you don't have, so you scheme and kill to get it. You are jealous of what others have, but you can't get it, so you fight and wage war to take it away from them. Yet you don't have what you want because you don't ask God for it. And even when you ask, you don't get it because your motives are all wrong—you want only what will give you pleasure."

The solution

Friends, it is only when we find our healing, comfort and completeness in God that we stop riding this vicious cycle of hurting people hurting others. God has planted eternity in the heart of man (see Ecclesiastes 3:11), and that eternity can only be made joyful when we are in Christ, in the Lord our God. Remember, by Christ's stripes we are healed (see Isaiah 53:5).


Watch the video: What Does It Mean To Be Neurotic? (May 2022).


Comments:

  1. Waylon

    It will go!

  2. Kara

    In this something is excellent idea, we maintain.

  3. Kigagar

    I answer your request - not the problem.

  4. Xabiere

    Not a bad site, I found a lot of interesting information



Write a message