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What is the phenomenon that one can recognize a movie after seeing a scene for a fraction of second called?

What is the phenomenon that one can recognize a movie after seeing a scene for a fraction of second called?



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I have experiences that while I was walking around the street, I saw a scene on a TV for a fraction of second, and I instantly recognized the correspondent movie. This is very interesting since at the time I didn't fully comprehend what I saw, but the name of movie came up anyway.

What is this very fast recollection phenomenon called? What is the type of memory involved? Where can I learn more about this cognitive function?


The subliminal recollection is called involuntary memory retrieval.

This triggers an implicit memory.

Further reading:


Before jumping in and explaining Memento, let’s take a quick look at the layout of Memento’s plot. One part of the story is in the forward direction. This is in black-and-white. The other part of the story is presented to us in the reverse direction. These parts are in colour. The climax of Memento is in the middle where the black-and-white meets the colour.

Assume there are 9 scenes in the film as below:

The film is laid out as follows:

  • First comes Scene 9, followed by Scene 1.
  • The next is Scene 8, followed by Scene 2.
  • So on, so forth, and eventually, Scene 5 is the climax of the film.

  • There is no specific age range as young and old have reported these same visions.

Deciphering the writing on the walls

The meaning of seeing writing on the walls is an ongoing mystery. One school of thought is that this is hypnagogic hallucination. (imagined sensations that seem very real)

Hypnagogic hallucinations have fascinated scientists, writers, and philosophers for many centuries. Research about their causes and link to dreams is ongoing. 

I include Wikipedia a list of languages that may help you decipher the writing you are seeing on the walls.

Comments About Seeing Writing On The Walls

Hieroglyphics In Light - by Jennifer P. New York
Many times, since I was a young adult, I have been seeing writing on the walls when I wake. Strange symbols like Hieroglyphics in light. I always tried to read it, but it fades within minutes. One-time I woke to see the strange symbols and read "In Harvest" written on my wall. It was 2003, I do not know what it means, but I never knew anyone else experienced this.

This looked like the language.

Red Writing Everywhere  - by Messiah - Midland Texas USA
Today had been a sad day, I remember feeling like it was over for me. I laid down but couldn’t quite fall asleep until I did. I woke up 10 minutes later terrified. I was awake but in shock, my walls were covered with red writing of symbols in a language I couldn’t understand. It looked a bit Egyptian but also a bit phonetic. It was in the hand writing of a child there were clear pictographs everywhere but there were also doodles, a huge curving circle around a painting I have. It lasted for about 2 minutes and all I could think was “when did I write this? My mother will kill me” yet I had no recollection of such a thing. It was seeing writing on the walls everywhere but not on my ceiling. This has never happened to me before but it looked as though it was written with a red bold marker seeing as I could make it out with my red lights on.

It Happened To Me - by Kartsy K - Lahore Pakistan
I had the same experience of seeing writing on the walls about a month ago and last night. Last night I went to sleep at about 4am and I woke up at 5am. It was dark outside. I was laying on my left side and I saw these writings on the wall. The writing looked like Chinese or some sort of old scripture. I couldn’t understand anything. It felt like dreaming but I was awake. I was like "oh there is something written on the whole wall, okay". I didn't react at that time. I am very scared of these types of things normally, but I didn't react at that time. But when I came to my senses, I was afraid a little. It looked like when a car passes by your house and sometimes the light comes into your room. The writings looked like it was formed from that light – but it wasn’t. The writing was yellowish in color. And then when I searched “Seeing Writing On The Walls” this morning I was really surprised that other people had been experiencing the same thing.

RE: Seeing Writing On The Walls - by Chris Gibson - Sunderland UK
Here is the short version of my seeing writing on the walls. One night I had a profound experience.  My relatives were coming over from Germany.  My best friend Robert and I were excitedly reading a German dictionary for several hours.  That night I was woken by a roaring sound, like the crashing waves of the nearby ocean or a deep tearing of something metallic.  I was terrified because the sound didn’t have a direction, it was simply everywhere, causing my hairs to stand up in fear and confusion. As I sat up and looked around I was shocked to see a white noise overlay over my vision.  After several disorientating seconds I tried walking around.  I could see symbols or writing scrawling around in the noise over my wardrobe and walls, but was unable to make sense of it and fear kept me from exploring further.  I switched on an old black and white TV set and turned the dial to tune into any channel with normality on it.  After thirty seconds the noise and sound subsided, thank God I wasn’t going to spontaneously combust!  After five or ten minutes reflecting what had happened, I turned off the TV and tried to sleep. I lay there for thirty seconds or more, filled with apprehension, but there was only silence.  I got myself comfortable and relaxed my guard.  It wasn’t long after I heard the rumbling again and within ten seconds the roaring sound and hallucination was back in full force.  I tried turning the radio on and found it had the same dampening effect as the TV.  I switched the radio off as I was becoming curious and felt more in control, and again the rumbling returned.  I decided to switch the radio on but without volume and found it was enough to allow me peace. This amazing and unknown event shaped my spirituality forever because I saw something profound in the link between the inner and outer world.

About seeing writing on the walls -  b y Steph Beth  (New York USA) 
First it started out every night in the middle of the night or when waking up I would see dots on the wall moving. Then it became grids perfectly squares that where bright blue. Then it became diamonds grids. Then now I saw in between my blinds what looked like either coding or Hebrew writing which I don’t understand. One time before I woke up a voice told me that my cat was going to die and that day she did die. She was sick. But once she died I remember the voice letting me know what was to come. I’ve had dreams that came true too. It’s very scary because I'd like to know why am I seeing these things almost every single night and morning I wake up. I’m not scared about it anymore I just want to understand why. I was thinking maybe I’m schizophrenic but I don’t have mood swings. I’ve also woke up one day and saw a lady looking at me smiling. Thinking maybe it’s just sleep paralysis. I’m just looking for answers. 

I'm Seeing Writing on the Walls - by Lisa (Alabama)
In 2007 I was lying in bed at my mother's house and I looked at a wall in the corner and a light appeared in that spot with writing on the wall. I had my glasses off and couldn't see what it read and I was afraid to blink because I thought it would fade away. I did eventually blink and the writing and the light faded. After asking it to come back several times the writing appeared again but I still could not make it out. Days later while lying in bed the writing came back, this time I had my glasses on but it was written in a strange language that I did not understand. It faded but reappeared days later this time in block form going in different directions. I went into the hospital a few weeks later and lying in the hospital bed with the lights off I saw spirits of people walking back and forth through my room as if it was a passage way to somewhere. I also saw a large white male sit in the chair beside my bed and talked with me but I do not remember what we talked about. I also remember a little boy standing at the side of my bed and I don't remember why. I later moved into a female friend's house and the writing came back. It was written in Greek or some strange language. I have asked God the why of this and I still don't know. I temporarily live in my sister's apartment and I have seen the writing again. A strange feeling comes over me when it appears. I have also experienced my bed vibrating twice. I have heard voices of people talking over the years and have had a spirit voice whisper in my ear information about others that I wouldn't have otherwise known. I sense people's emotions and can read people very well which has turned out to be a blessing and a curse because we as people are not very truthful a lot of the time. I have had knocking on the side of my bed and the side of my sofa when I am lying on it. I know when someone is going to die or has died. It's all very strange and I wonder if someone can help me understand this and tell me how to develop these gifts.  Is anyone else seeing writing on the walls?

Confused  - by Yoksan
I woke up in the middle of the night and clearly saw the word clairvoyance on the ceiling. I'm confused, I know it wasn't real but I could see it so plainly. I lucid dream regularly but never with an objective and I've learned to recognize words and lettering in my dreams but their always inconsistent, random, sometimes disappearing all together. But when I saw "clairvoyance" on my ceiling it was solid, bold, and I was awake. I shrugged off this episode of seeing writing on the walls as a hallucination but should I give it more thought?

Living Geometries and Ancient Language - by: Fabio Evandro 
It was wonderful to have found this page with so many reports from people who go through this experience of seeing writing on the walls. I researched a lot in the Portuguese language, because I live in Brazil and I did not find anything, until I translated a sentence for the English that brought me here. The writings are on the wall in the old language, now I see pictograms that do not make any sense to me, I've seen colorful diamonds in mosaic, with spheres that turned in their surroundings, a very beautiful sight. I continue as everyone seeking an explanation for this, the brain could not create such a manifestation, since they are symbols and geometries that I have never seen before, I believe to be downloads of other dimensions but with our limitations it is difficult to decipher. If we get together trying to figure it out I think we can get somewhere. For those who want to talk, find me at facebook.com/fabio.evandro.luis

I Do Too! - by Molly, Martinsburg 
I have blood type AB positive and Idk why but sometimes when I wake up I’ll look at my ceiling or wall and I’ll see these blue, white, or black words on my wall.. the words don’t make any since to me yet there regular words in English.. I can’t remember them but it’s just so strange to see so many paragraphs on my wall next to me.. TvT I wish I could understand why this happens.

Writing On The Ceiling - by Blackbird8
Have just woken 4-5 times last night to see the glyphs on my ceiling again. Mine are pale against the dark ceiling. Not illuminated but still quite clear. The first time I saw them about two years ago my whole ceiling was covered in a Mayan style design. Perfectly symmetrical. It was so beautiful. Have seen them maybe 6 times since and they are more Sumerian style now. I know I am wide awake when I look up at them. They last a minute or so then fade out gently. It’s amazing and a relief to find so many others are seeing them too. What’s going on.

I'm Seeing Writing On The Walls Too! - by Shana (Sartell MN USA)
I had been seeing writing on the walls a few times before, usually it’s related to my cerebral pressure being up and I usually recognize the words as something I read earlier in the evening. However tonight I was laying in bed trying to fall asleep and symbols started to appear on the wall. Now I did fall earlier in the night but did not hit my head and I was feeling in a fog all day earlier today for some weird reason.  The closest description I can think of what I saw tonight was similar to the Hebrew alphabet and it had a gold tint to it as it appeared on the wall. I do have RH negative blood and it always seems to happen when I am almost ready to fall asleep. I have had experiences with the paranormal over the years and recently even knew at late in the evening instantly where my husband was when he did not come home from work and had gotten in trouble. Where he was just literally popped in my head at 3 am while I was cleaning the kitchen since I was worried about him. 

Seeing Mayan Writing - by Louise (Inland Empire CA)
I wake up at least 3 times a month and looked at the wall through the doorway of our room in front of me and see Mayan type of writings or actual Mayan paintings.  Sometimes the pictures seem to be in motion. I do have 2 pictures of Mayan warriors in the house but down stairs. Also I see outlines of men and women in green and plaid shirts or gowns. They are transparent. They just stand there outside the door never come in the door. It really bothers me that I can't explain what is going on.

Help Me Understand - by Nikki (Atlanta GA)
I had a vision, I was seeing writing on the walls that were very colorful. I could not make out what the writings were saying, but I know it was writing this from many people. I was not asleep, I was sleepy, watching TV. I have had other experiences, but not while I was awake. Mostly when I’m waking up from dreaming or during a drain cycle.

Writing on the Wall - by Shirley Loefke (Colden, NY ,USA)
One night as I was watching TV I caught a glimpse of something red on the wall just to the right of the screen. I looked at it and I realized I was seeing writing on the walls. It looked like ink on a blotter would, blurred and fuzzy and as I watched it, it gradually began to fade. The letters, which I couldn't tell what they were because of the blur to them, were dripping like paint dripping down the wall. I told my family about it and they all laughed and made fun of me, some of them making the "oh brother" remark. I saw this writing on the wall, I was not sleeping or dreaming and my gut feeling told me it was an encounter of some kind.

Apparition On Walls - by Jim Urbie (North Dakota)
I've been seeing writing on the walls and ceilings also. I awoke early to use the restroom. I got out of my bed, as soon I looked up to see where I was going, I saw apparitions on the walls and ceilings of multiple sized boxes with roundish corners, each having a mysterious symbol in them. The biggest apparition was ahead of me on the ceiling nearest the wall, I estimate the size to that of two posters side by side. Other boxes were roughly between ten and twelve inches in size. I wiped my eyes thinking perhaps my eyes were not yet opened. I then thought maybe it was reflection from light on laptop screen but my laptop behind me, the lid was mostly closed, I rubbed my eyes, still there. Then walked out into living room and apparition on walls and ceilings was all over there too. The images were not seeming as if they were directly on the walls/floor/ceiling, they were seeming to be close but not on the wall. A strange fog/cloudy layer but not on the walls itself. It took me by surprise as I’m sure it would anyone. I walked into the bathroom and turned the light on and the light cleared everything up. I finished that task and went back to bed wondering what I just saw. I woke up later again by my alarm to do the work thingy. I hopped on messenger and sent a msg to a friend that is close to the spirits sections and told them what I had seen. Lots of thoughts but no solid answers. On the humor side why doesn't google translate work on this stuff? The only symbol that I really remember from seeing writing on the walls was a squarish like spiral that went outside to inside spiral in a clockwise direction. It was a squared version of I guess an upside down @, but more squarish. The utmost point was to the upper side around a one o'clock position. As for the other symbols, I don't recall any being the same. Nothing that represented an alphabet I've ever seen before. I looked at the list of languages you linked to. Nothing like those but more symbol like in the Phoenician alphabet or Paleo-Hebrew alphabet but not matching any of those characters on those two lists. The @ like symbol I don’t see on the list or anything similar. Does anyone have any thoughts on all this seeing writing on the walls stuff? I would like to hear what you have to say. I looked up hypnagogic and the opposite but my state of awake did not fit either of those. My friend said the following: Many ancient languages use a picture form of language to simplify meaning to words or references. We lost the knowledge to understand it. To me that's like angelic downloading to you. To that last comment my response was "A Christmas card from the head office?" :) 

If you would like to ask questions, add answers, or post comment on this page please use my contact form. Start the conversation with the heading [About Seeing Writing On The Walls].

If you're inspired to write an article on this subject please submit a guest post here.


Conspiracy theory

What you describe is partially possible you can get a small portion of humanity to get aggressive and murderous with the right push. Case in point: Pizzagate. It's just a stupid fabrication about a polictician using a chain of restaurants to sell babies to satanists. This could have ended there, but Youtube and other social media had thousands of people making videos describing it. And then this happened:

Members of the alt-right, conservative journalists, and others who had urged Clinton's prosecution over the emails, spread the conspiracy theory on social media outlets such as 4chan, 8chan, and Twitter. In response, a man from North Carolina traveled to Comet Ping Pong to investigate the conspiracy and fired a rifle inside the restaurant to break the lock on a door to a storage room during his search. The restaurant owner and staff also received death threats from conspiracy theorists.

You may think that was an isolated case, but a few years later the same kind of stuff led not just a guy but a whole mob to storm the US capitol.

Right now about half of the american population votes and stands for the party that endorses policticians such as Marjorie Taylor Greene, who speaks publicly for the execution of house representatives for the mere crime of being against the former government's projects. She also pushes further conspiracy material in her social networks. She is actually one of the main spreaders of the whole Pizzagate thing, as well as being associated with Qanon.

Now imagine a world in which that woman is a chief of state - does 't have to be the US, could be any other country - with extensive support of the media and masses. Any government-backed movie telling you that some portion of the population should be eliminates for the greater good will lead to people to go killing each other.


Perceiving Form

One of the important processes required in vision is the perception of form. German psychologists in the 1930s and 1940s, including Max Wertheimer (1880-1943), Kurt Koffka (1886-1941), and Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), argued that we create forms out of their component sensations based on the idea of the gestalt, a meaningfully organized whole. The idea of the gestalt is that the “whole is more than the sum of its parts.” Some examples of how gestalt principles lead us to see more than what is actually there are summarized in Table 5.1, “Summary of Gestalt Principles of Form Perception.”


What is the phenomenon that one can recognize a movie after seeing a scene for a fraction of second called? - Psychology

Whereas other animals rely primarily on hearing, smell, or touch to understand the world around them, human beings rely in large part on vision. A large part of our cerebral cortex is devoted to seeing, and we have substantial visual skills. Seeing begins when light falls on the eyes, initiating the process of transduction. Once this visual information reaches the visual cortex, it is processed by a variety of neurons that detect colors, shapes, and motion, and that create meaningful perceptions out of the incoming stimuli.

The air around us is filled with a sea of electromagnetic energy pulses of energy waves that can carry information from place to place. As you can see in Figure 4.6 "The Electromagnetic Spectrum", electromagnetic waves vary in their wavelength The distance between one wave peak and the next wave peak. —the distance between one wave peak and the next wave peak, with the shortest gamma waves being only a fraction of a millimeter in length and the longest radio waves being hundreds of kilometers long. Humans are blind to almost all of this energy—our eyes detect only the range from about 400 to 700 billionths of a meter, the part of the electromagnetic spectrum known as the visible spectrum.

Figure 4.6 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Only a small fraction of the electromagnetic energy that surrounds us (the visible spectrum) is detectable by the human eye.


The Pleasure and Danger of Augmented Reality

Smart phones. One can’t imagine life without them. Ah, the endless convenience: looking up a restaurant on Yelp, finding out a movie’s rating on Rotten Tomatoes, seeing that cute guy’s profile on Facebook. But to be honest, they’re not really that convenient. Every time you need information, you have to take out your phone, open the browser, type in a search, browse the results. after a while, even a smart phone can seem like a heavy dumb tool. Wouldn’t it be better to just look at a movie poster at the cinema and see its ratings appear next to it? When a beautiful woman talks to you at a party, wouldn’t it be great if her Facebook page with her interests and background pops up on the side too? You needn’t pine in despair: augmented reality will make these scenarios possible for you within a decade.

Augmented reality adds a layer of information on top of everything in front of your eyes. How? By making you wear glasses that have tiny video cameras in them. These cameras “see” the world on your behalf and livestream it to the inside of your glasses. You feel like you’re watching the world through transparent glasses, but in fact you’re seeing a movie of the scene in front of your eyes. You could run around the whole day and never notice the difference between wearing these glasses and not wearing them: the glasses show you an exact replica of what your eyes would see. However, the advantage of having glasses is that now you can add software intelligence to them. These glasses can recognize an object in front of your eyes using image recognition software, search the Internet for information on that object and add it to the image display you see. The process of "recognize, search, add" is almost instantaneous.

One can immediately see the value of augmented content. Just imagine being a tourist in Paris and having a quick history of the Eiffel Tower displayed next to it. You’d never need holiday guidebooks like Lonely Planet again! The potential to transform the experience of education is full of promise. Instead of just reading about dinosaurs, your children could actually see small 3D dinosaurs walking on the table in front of them. But having augmented reality also has its cons. If a violent homophobe walks into a bar and his augmented reality glasses identify a person as being gay, it could become a potentially dangerous situation for that person. (To learn more about the latest augmented reality glasses priced at $2000 work, see this article and associated video on Singularity Hub)

Augmented reality adds content to a live streaming video, but it could just as easily remove content as well. This is known as diminished reality, and researchers at the Technical University of Ilmenau in Germany have developed software that can remove objects from live videos. So for example, say you had a massive fight with your ex-boyfriend and never want to see him again. You could program your glasses to remove him from your line of vision. If you walked into a restaurant where he was sitting with his new lover, the software in the glasses would remove him from the scene so that you would never know he was even there. (For technical details on how the software works, see a brief article here). Definitely watch this amazing video on how the software in action:

Diminished reality can have many productive applications. Architects can imagine what a site will look like after a building has been demolished, for instance. At the same time, it can also become a destructive tool for spreading apathy in society. “I don’t want to see any homeless people on the street,” you may decide, and the software will keep deleting the poor lying on the sidewalks and you will never feel compelled to do anything about the stark income disparity in your city.

Augmented and diminished realities are going to become commonplace as image recognition becomes more sophisticated, and the circuitry and cameras become smaller and cheaper so that they can be embedded in the eye as contact lenses and become affordable for everyone. (See this article by Babak A. Parviz whose lab at University of Washington is working on augmented reality contact lenses.) These technologies can enrich our lives in a multitude of ways, but they can also forever lock each of us into an alternate reality of our own making.

Ayesha and Parag Khanna explore human-technology co-evolution and its implications for society, business and politics at The Hybrid Reality Institute.


Crowther (2018) discusses a closely related topic, the visual appearance of solidity.

Many authors (for example, Fish 2010) take the notion of a visual impression for granted and are happy simply to stipulate that CTP applies only to these. There is nothing wrong with this elucidating vision is not the purpose of CTP. Nevertheless, an adequate elucidation of visual impressions, and particularly of object-impressions, provides a fuller understanding of the phenomena mentioned at the beginning of this paper and helps scotch some wildly counter-intuitive applications of the theory.

Despite his title, “The Causal Theory of Perception,” Grice was not primarily interested in perception. His aim, and his great achievement in this paper, was to distinguish between semantical and pragmatic explanations of everyday language implications. The main example, made relevant by the then unpublished views of Austin (1962) and of others listed by Alan White (1961, p. 158), was the idea that ‘X looks red’ implies either that somebody has denied that it is red, or that there is cause for doubt that it is. Grice transformed philosophy of language with his argument that this is a pragmatic, not a semantic, implication.

Snowdon (1980–1981) says that ‘looks’ should be understood “phenomenologically” in Grice’s CTP. I assume he is alluding to Frank Jackson (1977), who defines this as ‘looks F’ where F is a term for a colour, shape, or distance. This overlaps with the proposal considered in section III, and I’ll discuss it there.

To conform to Grice’s formulation, I have substituted ‘looks a certain way’ for ‘sees’ in this definition. As well, I have not (as Dretske does) insisted on logical necessity, which cannot, by its nature, apply to some but not all statements of the same logical form, and cannot therefore distinguish between ‘My hand looks this way’ and ‘His finances look this way.’ I have substituted the vaguer term, ‘analytically.’.

There are other accounts of the semantics of ‘looks’ as it is used to report visual impressions. See, in particular, Martin (2010). For a sophisticated comprehensive treatment, see Brogaard (2015, 2018).

Such looks are a problem for artificial intelligence recognition-modules: the reason why it takes advanced computational techniques to recognize faces is that the look of a face is not reducible to low-level visual properties (see Martin 2010 for an explication of looks).

This is what Brogaard (2018, pp. 14–22) does, supplementing her view with an argument against top-down influences.

Snowdon (1980–1981, p. 176) incorporates visual phenomenology in his formulation of CTP, but he retains the tie to reports of the form, “It looks to me as if…” This reluctance to talk directly of visual experience is now passé: see, for example, Fish (2010), chapter 7. But it needs to be clarified that not every experience characteristic of seeing counts in this context: being dazzled by a flash bulb and having an after-image of it are effects of seeing the light, but do not constitute seeing it. For this reason, I have specified that it is an experience as of things outside the perceiving subject.

The same goes for the expectations that go with active looking. Suppose that the content of seeing something as a 3D object includes the expectation that if you move to the left, you will see parts of it that were theretofore hidden from sight suppose the content of seeing something as a shadow or stain similarly includes the expectation that you will not. Then, the content of imagining that you see such objects includes the same expectations.

I should say here, for the sake of clarity, that attentive looking at an object is not necessary in order to see that object. You may look at a scene, or at one object in a scene, and thereby see (other) objects that you are not directly looking at.

For discussions of active vision, see Aloiomanos et al. (1987), Churchland et al. (1994), Findlay and Gilchrist (2003), Clark (2014), p. 101 and Matthen (2014).

Sensory substitution is an interesting case. TVSS-stimulated blind people who are tactually stimulated do report visual-like experiences of depth and perspective produced by an activity that resembles looking in relevant ways. I won’t pursue this discussion here, but see Macpherson (forthcoming), especially the Introduction.

Embarrassingly for Grice, he would have to say that the colour-blind person does see the same ‘5’ as the colour-sighted person.

Grice writes, “If someone has seen a speck on the horizon, which is in fact a battleship, we should in some contexts be willing to say that he has seen a battleship” (147). True: a lookout would get credit for having spotted it. But it’s hard to extend the same courtesy to a spotter who failed to discern a camouflaged moth right before his eyes.

Many thanks to Maarten Steenhagen who showed me some astonishing drawings of migraine auras, showing striking similarities between different subjects.

It’s not clear to me how his account would work in olfaction, gustation, and touch.

In a clever and instructive paper, Yetter-Chappell (2018) explicitly reverses this methodology, arguing (see her note 3) for an approach in which examples drive theory, rather than the other way around. I agree with many of the conclusions that she arrives at, but my aim to show how things go wrong or are different in certain examples, and here the theory of object-seeing helps.

There is a distant ancestor of this argument in Maxwell (1962), who asks whether we see “corporeal organisms” through microscopes, observing that there is a continuum (of unspecified dimensionality) between seeing through a vacuum and seeing through a microscope. It’s unclear, though, why either Yetter-Chappell or Maxwell before her, take the similarity of the external process to be the sole determinant of whether or not we see an object. Why don’t they allow that the dissimilarity of the resultant visual impression is relevant?

If we did not see the material object to which S belongs, there would be no difference between visually segregating S and seeing it as a material surface.

I was privileged to present versions of this paper at Oberlin College, New York University (Abu Dhabi), and Durham University. I am very grateful to Todd Ganson, Gabe Rabin, and Clare Mac Cumhaill for these opportunities and I thank my audiences for discussion, particularly my commentator in Abu Dhabi, Phillip Meadows. Two anonymous referees for this journal read the paper thrice each with amazing care and intelligence. They made a big difference.


What is the phenomenon that one can recognize a movie after seeing a scene for a fraction of second called? - Psychology

Why audiophiles are different (explained with color)

A very interesting video on color and color perception. How it comes into being.

In the act of doing so, it illustrates how the complexity of the high end audio world comes into existence..

at the same time it explains how we end up with almost what you would call 'violent detractors'. Negative detractors.

People unable to discern nuance. Audio haters. As in . non evolved people, regarding audio.

This is not a put down, it merely uses the words to describe the position in life they are in at the time. They may evolve more into the given audio directions, or they may not. It is a matter of will, choice, time, and innate capacity to do so.

Millercarbon

Something I have been saying for a long time now. Not just me, either. I got it from Robert Harley’s excellent The Complete Guide to High End Audio. There’s a whole chapter devoted to a glossary of audiophile terms for the way things sound and the importance and value in being able to recognize them.

So for example take grain, the term we use for a sound that has a rough texture. Grain can be rough like gravel or fine like sand or even finer like a powder. When all the grain is gone the sound is smooth and liquid.

The video guy talks about cultures always going through stages starting with black and white, then red, yellow/green, and finally blue. This is just like what I was saying a while back about the audiophile stages.

Everyone starts out being able to discern volume. Most everyone can tell which is louder. Then comes frequency response or tone. This is a variation on volume, basically evaluating if the volume is the same at every frequency. Almost all audiophiles get this, and it explains perfectly why so many are so caught up in EQ and frequency response. Many (not all) are stuck and never get past this intermediate stage.

Then we have imaging, the ability to locate a sound in 3D space. This is innate in human beings and so if the system is set up properly (far from certain) many audiophiles will hear imaging. Still, notice how many arguments there are among audiophiles about imaging, from people who don’t hear it, many of whom are convinced it does not exist at all!

Just like the Greeks who are blind to blue, these audiophiles are deaf to imaging.

The last and highest stages of listening involve the ability to discern fine details- and not fine in terms of volume necessarily but fine in terms of character. The gradations of grain to liquid mentioned earlier are one aspect of this.

Take something like warm up. Cold gear is grainy. The same component after thorough warm up is much smoother. A lot of the difference between freebie rubber power cords and quality wire is grain. Yes also dynamics, imaging, etc. Whole long list. But notice, almost everything on the list is the same sort of higher level last things we learn to hear sort of attribute!

Little wonder then that so many debate so vociferously whether these things do anything at all. No wonder we have these people throwing snake oil around. Blind to blue.

Said it a million times: listening is a skill. Skills can be learned. Skills you can get better at. If you cannot tell the difference between two wires, or think they are tone controls, or maybe don’t even think these things exist, all that means is you are blind to blue. But the good news here is, you don’t have to be. You can open your eyes and see. You just have to make the effort to learn how.


Specific Trauma-Related Psychological Disorders

Part of the definition of trauma is that the individual responds with intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Beyond that, in both the short term and the long term, trauma comprises a range of reactions from normal (e.g., being unable to concentrate, feeling sad, having trouble sleeping) to warranting a diagnosis of a trauma-related mental disorder. Most people who experience trauma have no long-lasting disabling effects their coping skills and the support of those around them are sufficient to help them overcome their difficulties, and their ability to function on a daily basis over time is unimpaired. For others, though, the symptoms of trauma are more severe and last longer. The most common diagnoses associated with trauma are PTSD and ASD, but trauma is also associated with the onset of other mental disorders—particularly substance use disorders, mood disorders, various anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. Trauma also typically exacerbates symptoms of preexisting disorders, and, for people who are predisposed to a mental disorder, trauma can precipitate its onset. Mental disorders can occur almost simultaneously with trauma exposure or manifest sometime thereafter.

Acute Stress Disorder

ASD represents a normal response to stress. Symptoms develop within 4 weeks of the trauma and can cause significant levels of distress. Most individuals who have acute stress reactions never develop further impairment or PTSD. Acute stress disorder is highly associated with the experience of one specific trauma rather than the experience of long-term exposure to chronic traumatic stress. Diagnostic criteria are presented in Exhibit 1.3-3.

Exhibit 1.3-3

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for ASD. Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation in one (or more) of the following ways: Directly experiencing the traumatic event(s).

The primary presentation of an individual with an acute stress reaction is often that of someone who appears overwhelmed by the traumatic experience. The need to talk about the experience can lead the client to seem self-centered and unconcerned about the needs of others. He or she may need to describe, in repetitive detail, what happened, or may seem obsessed with trying to understand what happened in an effort to make sense of the experience. The client is often hypervigilant and avoids circumstances that are reminders of the trauma. For instance, someone who was in a serious car crash in heavy traffic can become anxious and avoid riding in a car or driving in traffic for a finite time afterward. Partial amnesia for the trauma often accompanies ASD, and the individual may repetitively question others to fill in details. People with ASD symptoms sometimes seek assurance from others that the event happened in the way they remember, that they are not “going crazy” or “losing it,” and that they could not have prevented the event. The next case illustration demonstrates the time-limited nature of ASD.

Differences between ASD and PTSD

It is important to consider the differences between ASD and PTSD when forming a diagnostic impression. The primary difference is the amount of time the symptoms have been present. ASD resolves 2 days to 4 weeks after an event, whereas PTSD continues beyond the 4-week period. The diagnosis of ASD can change to a diagnosis of PTSD if the condition is noted within the first 4 weeks after the event, but the symptoms persist past 4 weeks.

ASD also differs from PTSD in that the ASD diagnosis requires 9 out of 14 symptoms from five categories, including intrusion, negative mood, dissociation, avoidance, and arousal. These symptoms can occur at the time of the trauma or in the following month. Studies indicate that dissociation at the time of trauma is a good predictor of subsequent PTSD, so the inclusion of dissociative symptoms makes it more likely that those who develop ASD will later be diagnosed with PTSD (Bryant & Harvey, 2000). Additionally, ASD is a transient disorder, meaning that it is present in a person’s life for a relatively short time and then passes. In contrast, PTSD typically becomes a primary feature of an individual’s life. Over a lengthy period, PTSD can have profound effects on clients’ perceptions of safety, their sense of hope for the future, their relationships with others, their physical health, the appearance of psychiatric symptoms, and their patterns of substance use and abuse.

There are common symptoms between PTSD and ASD, and untreated ASD is a possible predisposing factor to PTSD, but it is unknown whether most people with ASD are likely to develop PTSD. There is some suggestion that, as with PTSD, ASD is more prevalent in women than in men (Bryant & Harvey, 2003). However, many people with PTSD do not have a diagnosis or recall a history of acute stress symptoms before seeking treatment for or receiving a diagnosis of PTSD.

Case Illustration: Sheila

Two months ago, Sheila, a 55-year-old married woman, experienced a tornado in her home town. In the previous year, she had addressed a long-time marijuana use problem with the help of a treatment program and had been abstinent for about 6 months. Sheila was proud of her abstinence it was something she wanted to continue. She regarded it as a mark of personal maturity it improved her relationship with her husband, and their business had flourished as a result of her abstinence.

During the tornado, an employee reported that Sheila had become very agitated and had grabbed her assistant to drag him under a large table for cover. Sheila repeatedly yelled to her assistant that they were going to die. Following the storm, Sheila could not remember certain details of her behavior during the event. Furthermore, Sheila said that after the storm, she felt numb, as if she was floating out of her body and could watch herself from the outside. She stated that nothing felt real and it was all like a dream.

Following the tornado, Sheila experienced emotional numbness and detachment, even from people close to her, for about 2 weeks. The symptoms slowly decreased in intensity but still disrupted her life. Sheila reported experiencing disjointed or unconnected images and dreams of the storm that made no real sense to her. She was unwilling to return to the building where she had been during the storm, despite having maintained a business at this location for 15 years. In addition, she began smoking marijuana again because it helped her sleep. She had been very irritable and had uncharacteristic angry outbursts toward her husband, children, and other family members.

As a result of her earlier contact with a treatment program, Sheila returned to that program and engaged in psychoeducational, supportive counseling focused on her acute stress reaction. She regained abstinence from marijuana and returned shortly to a normal level of functioning. Her symptoms slowly diminished over a period of 3 weeks. With the help of her counselor, she came to understand the link between the trauma and her relapse, regained support from her spouse, and again felt in control of her life.

Effective interventions for ASD can significantly reduce the possibility of the subsequent development of PTSD. Effective treatment of ASD can also reduce the incidence of other co-occurring problems, such as depression, anxiety, dissociative disorders, and compulsive behaviors (Bryant & Harvey, 2000). Intervention for ASD also helps the individual develop coping skills that can effectively prevent the recurrence of ASD after later traumas.

Although predictive science for ASD and PTSD will continue to evolve, both disorders are associated with increased substance use and mental disorders and increased risk of relapse therefore, effective screening for ASD and PTSD is important for all clients with these disorders. Individuals in early recovery—lacking well-practiced coping skills, lacking environmental supports, and already operating at high levels of anxiety𠅊re particularly susceptible to ASD. Events that would not normally be disabling can produce symptoms of intense helplessness and fear, numbing and depersonalization, disabling anxiety, and an inability to handle normal life events. Counselors should be able to recognize ASD and treat it rather than attributing the symptoms to a client’s lack of motivation to change, being 𠇍ry drunk” (for those in substance abuse recovery), or being manipulative.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

The trauma-related disorder that receives the greatest attention is PTSD it is the most commonly diagnosed trauma-related disorder, and its symptoms can be quite debilitating over time. Nonetheless, it is important to remember that PTSD symptoms are represented in a number of other mental illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, and psychotic disorders (Foa et al., 2006). The DSM-5 (APA, 2013a) identifies four symptom clusters for PTSD: presence of intrusion symptoms, persistent avoidance of stimuli, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and marked alterations in arousal and reactivity. Individuals must have been exposed to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence, and the symptoms must produce significant distress and impairment for more than 4 weeks (Exhibit 1.3-4).

Exhibit 1.3-4

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for PTSD. Note: The following criteria apply to adults, adolescents, and children older than 6 years. For children 6 years and younger, see the DSM-5 section titled “Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Children 6 Years (more. )

Case Illustration: Michael

Michael is a 62-year-old Vietnam veteran. He is a divorced father of two children and has four grandchildren. Both of his parents were dependent on alcohol. He describes his childhood as isolated. His father physically and psychologically abused him (e.g., he was beaten with a switch until he had welts on his legs, back, and buttocks). By age 10, his parents regarded him as incorrigible and sent him to a reformatory school for 6 months. By age 15, he was using marijuana, hallucinogens, and alcohol and was frequently truant from school.

At age 19, Michael was drafted and sent to Vietnam, where he witnessed the deaths of six American military personnel. In one incident, the soldier he was next to in a bunker was shot. Michael felt helpless as he talked to this soldier, who was still conscious. In Vietnam, Michael increased his use of both alcohol and marijuana. On his return to the United States, Michael continued to drink and use marijuana. He reenlisted in the military for another tour of duty.

His life stabilized in his early 30s, as he had a steady job, supportive friends, and a relatively stable family life. However, he divorced in his late 30s. Shortly thereafter, he married a second time, but that marriage ended in divorce as well. He was chronically anxious and depressed and had insomnia and frequent nightmares. He periodically binged on alcohol. He complained of feeling empty, had suicidal ideation, and frequently stated that he lacked purpose in his life.

In the 1980s, Michael received several years of mental health treatment for dysthymia. He was hospitalized twice and received 1 year of outpatient psychotherapy. In the mid-1990s, he returned to outpatient treatment for similar symptoms and was diagnosed with PTSD and dysthymia. He no longer used marijuana and rarely drank. He reported that he didn’t like how alcohol or other substances made him feel anymore—he felt out of control with his emotions when he used them. Michael reported symptoms of hyperarousal, intrusion (intrusive memories, nightmares, and preoccupying thoughts about Vietnam), and avoidance (isolating himself from others and feeling “numb”). He reported that these symptoms seemed to relate to his childhood abuse and his experiences in Vietnam. In treatment, he expressed relief that he now understood the connection between his symptoms and his history.

Certain characteristics make people more susceptible to PTSD, including one’s unique personal vulnerabilities at the time of the traumatic exposure, the support (or lack of support) received from others at the time of the trauma and at the onset of trauma-related symptoms, and the way others in the person’s environment gauge the nature of the traumatic event (Brewin, Andrews, & Valentine, 2000).

People with PTSD often present varying clinical profiles and histories. They can experience symptoms that are activated by environmental triggers and then recede for a period of time. Some people with PTSD who show mostly psychiatric symptoms (particularly depression and anxiety) are misdiagnosed and go untreated for their primary condition. For many people, the trauma experience and diagnosis are obscured by co-occurring substance use disorder symptoms. The important feature of PTSD is that the disorder becomes an orienting feature of the individual’s life. How well the person can work, with whom he or she associates, the nature of close and intimate relationships, the ability to have fun and rejuvenate, and the way in which an individual goes about confronting and solving problems in life are all affected by the client’s trauma experiences and his or her struggle to recover.

Posttraumatic stress disorder: Timing of symptoms

Although symptoms of PTSD usually begin within 3 months of a trauma in adulthood, there can be a delay of months or even years before symptoms appear for some people. Some people may have minimal symptoms after a trauma but then experience a crisis later in life. Trauma symptoms can appear suddenly, even without conscious memory of the original trauma or without any overt provocation. Survivors of abuse in childhood can have a delayed response triggered by something that happens to them as adults. For example, seeing a movie about child abuse can trigger symptoms related to the trauma. Other triggers include returning to the scene of the trauma, being reminded of it in some other way, or noting the anniversary of an event. Likewise, combat veterans and survivors of community-wide disasters may seem to be coping well shortly after a trauma, only to have symptoms emerge later when their life situations seem to have stabilized. Some clients in substance abuse recovery only begin to experience trauma symptoms when they maintain abstinence for some time. As individuals decrease tension-reducing or self-medicating behaviors, trauma memories and symptoms can emerge.

Advice to Counselors: Helping Clients With Delayed Trauma Responses

Clients who are experiencing a delayed trauma response can benefit if you help them to:


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