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I'm reading the PNAS paper Neural encoding of the concept of nest in the mouse brain by Lin et al. 2007

A certain 'nest cell' is described in the paper that fires only when the mouse approaches its nest. My question is: can the same nest cell fire at other concepts or is it solely dedicated to 'nest'? If it's only dedicated to one single concept, that seems like a limiting waste.


Cell phones promote serious social, psychological issues

WASHINGTON, April 7, 2013 - “It’s getting harder to differentiate between schizophrenics and people talking on the cell phone. It brings me up short to walk by somebody who appears to be talking to themselves.” Bob Newhart.

What started out as a means of adult communication has become a teen status symbol and a new age addiction, and it is not a drug: It’s a cell phone. Recent research at Baylor University finds the link between materialism and IT devices are creating a generation of learned compulsive behavior. With four billion cell phones in use today, that’s a substantial amount of compulsion.

Cell phones act like a pacifier for impulsiveness, which is a major component of addiction. Studies reported by the Journal of Behavioral Sciences show that young adult send an average of 109.5 text messages daily and check their cell phones an average of 60 times a day.

Dr. Rick Naurert, an expert in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare and an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University claims his research shows 22 percent of cell phone users describe themselves as “Heavy users” with eight percent paying bills of $500 or more per month. A large survey showed 28 percent of cell phone users use their device to contact partners, 28 percent contact close friends, 26 percent contact family and only 11 percent use the phone for business.

New York City based Psychiatrist Dr. Jeremy Spiegel, founder of Casco Bay Medical with offices in Danvers Mass. and Portland Maine found that cell phone socialization is skeletal and interferes or replaces interfacing with people on a much needed social level. The device is creating what some experts call the “Narcissist Generation” - those who truly believe they are so important and popular with their thoughts they make themselves available to whom over needs them.

The cell and text addiction feeds the misplaced sense of self-importance and is now exacerbated by twitter, making the young sycophantic and susceptible to non-gainful unintelligent chatter. This meaningless chatter is time consuming and can displace activities of greater personal value.

The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual V (DSM V), the soon to be released-the 5 th edition bible for mental health care professionals, is rumored to include an appendix to promote research of internet addiction. In today’s world, that addiction translates to any electronic device which generates response behavior that presents as Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and may be contributing to Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).

To make matters worse, Hiam Einhorn, CEO of EZ Technologies, has sounded the alarm on unacceptable radiation levels from cell phone use. Einhorn notes that no long-term studies currently exist to definitively answer the question of whether cell phone radiation causes brain cancer. He notes, however, that the evidence is trickling in. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) determined the levels of electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones is a possible source of brain cancer.

The future may hold a means of digital detox and 28 day rehabilitation where the young actually sit in front of each other in an attempt to speak face to face after an anticipated long silence.

Until then, a responsible electronic industry should produce teen cell phones that can only be operated “X” amount of minutes daily with parental control much like the safeguards built into cable TV and internet pornographic sites.

There is an unnerving possibility that the physical damage from electromagnetic radiation may go the route of cigarettes a strong socio/political aggressive industry interfering with evidence until millions are addicted and many get deadly ill.

From a psychological standpoint, while these devices are increasing social connectivity, they are decreasing healthy social connectivity and interfering with human interaction that fosters intimacy and closeness.

Paul Mountjoy is a Virginia based writer and a member of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Sciences.


2 Mark Questions

Chapter 13
Organisms and Populations

2 Marks Questions
1. What are the four levels of biological organisation with which ecology basically deals?
Ans.Organisms, population, communities and biomes.

2. Differentiate between stenohaline and euryhaline organisms.
Ans.Euryhaline :Organisms tolerant in wide range of salinities.
Stenohaline :Organisms tolerant to narrow range of salinities.

3. List four features which enable the Xeric plants to survive in the desert conditions.
Ans. (i) thick cuticle
(ii) Stomata in deep pits
(iii) Stomata closed during day time
(iv) leaves reduced to spines (CAM photosynthetic pathway).

4. Mention the attributes which a population has but not an individual organism.
Ans.Birth rate, Death rate, Sex ratio, age groups.

5. Differentiate between stenothermal and eurythermal organisms.
Ans.Eurythermal :Organisms that can tolerate and thrive in wide range of temperaturesStenothermal :Organisms restricted to a narrow range of temperature.

6. What are the four ways through which the living organisms respond to abiotic factors?
Ans. (i) Regulate (ii) Conform (iii) migrate (iv) Suspend

7. Why do clown fish and sea anemone pair up? What is this relationship called?
Ans.Clown fish lives in tentacles of sea Anemone and gets protection from predators.
Interaction – commeasalisn.

8.Distinguish between ectotherms& Endotherms?
Ans.Ectotherms are those animals whose body temperature changes & matches with that of environment in which they are living whereas Endotherms are those animal whose body temperature is maintained relatively constant by physiological regulation.

9.“Lichens are considered good examples of obligate mutualisms”. Comment?
Ans.Lichens show an intimate mutualistic relationship between a fungus & an algae or cynobacterium where the fungus helps in absorption of nutrients & provides it to bacteria while the algae or cyanobacterium prepares the food.

10.Give any two examples of defense mechanism in plants against herbivory?
Ans. i) plants develops certain morphological means of defense e.g. thorns in bougainvillea & spinesin cactus.
ii) plants produce & store certain chemicals which functions with by directly killing them or by inhibiting them from feeding .

11.What is Brood parasitism? Give an example. What adaptation has evolved in this phenomenon?
Ans.Brood parasitism refers to the phenomenon in which one bird species by its eggs in the nest ofanother bird species Evolution has occurred in such a way the eggs of the parasitic birds resemblethose of the host bird in size, colouretc to avoid host bird detecting the foreign eggs & ejecting themfrom the nest e.g. cuckoo bird lays eggs in the nest of crow. It is considered as a parasitic type ofinterspecific interaction because in this relationship the parasite i.e. eggs of cuckoo birds dependson crow’s nest for its food & shelter but the crow is harmed because there is competition for limitedfood and shelter amongst the crow’s egg & cuckoo’s egg thus, in parasitic interspecific interactionthe parasite is benefited while the host is harmed.

12.An orchid plant is growing on the branch of mango tree. How do you describe this interaction between the orchid & the mango tree?
Ans.Orchids grows as epiphytes on mango tree. This is an example of commensalism in which orchids are benefited by getting a shelter while the tree is neither benefited nor harmed.

13.State Gauss’s competitive exclusion principle?
Ans.Gause’s competitive exclusion principle states that two closely related species competing for the same resources cannot exist together as the competitively inferior one will be eliminated but this is true only when resources are limiting & not otherwise.

14.What is migration? Why do animals show this phenomenon?
Ans.Migration is a phenomenon in which organisms can move away temporarily from the stressful conditions in the habitat with hospitable conditions e.g. birds undertake long distance migration during winter.

15.How do desert lizards maintain a fairly constant body temperature?
Ans.Desert lizards manage to deal with high temperature by keeping their body temperature fairlyconstant by behavioral means. They bask in the sun & absorb heat when their body temperature isbelow the comfort level & move into shade when it is higher.

16.Differentiate between Hibernation & aestivation?
Ans.Hibernation is the phenomenon of spending cold period in inactive stage by an animal whereasaestivation is the phenomenon of spending dry & hot conditions in an inactive stage by animal.

17.Name the bind of interaction present between the following :-
i) Indian Nightingale & crow
ii) Nodulated roots & rhizobium
iii) Plasmoduim& man
iv) Orchids & Mongo tree
Ans. i) Indian Nightingale &crow :- Brood parasitism
ii) Nodulated roots & rhizobium :- Mutualism
iii) Plasmoduim& man :- Perasitism
iv) Orchids & Mongo tree :- Commensalism.

18.Define carrying capacity?
Ans.The maximum number of individuals of a population that can be sustained by a given habitat is called its carrying capacity.

19.If a marine fish is placed in fresh water aquarium, will the fish be able to survive. Why or why not?
Ans.No, marine fish is unable to survive in a fresh water aquarium because they are adapted to live insaline sea water. They are unable to cope with outside hypotonic environment because ofOsmoregulation problem.

20.Out of the two population growth models, which one is more realistic & Why?
Ans. Logistic or S-shaped growth curve is more realistic because no population can continue to grow exponentially, as the resource availability becomes limiting at certain point of time.

21.What role do predators play in an ecosystem?
Ans.Predators plays an important role in ecosystem :-
i)They act as conduct for energy transfer to higher trophic level.
ii)Theykeep the prey population under control which otherwise can reach very high population density.
iii)They help in maintaining species diversity in a community.

22.Most living organisms cannot survive at temperature above 450c. How are some microbes able to live in habitat with temperature exceeding 1000c.
Ans.Some microbes are able to live in habitats with temperate exceeding 1000 c because theypossess minimum amount of free water in their body. Removal of water provide resistance to hightemperature.

23.Give below is a graph depicting organismic response to changing external condition. Name the type of organisms which will show:-
i) pattern A
ii) pattern B

Ans. i) Conformers shows pattern A where body temperature changes with the ambienttemperature.
ii) Regulators shows pattern B where body temperature remains constant.

24.Mention any two ways in which organisms tide over unfavourable conditions by suspending their activities.
Ans. i) Hibernation – phenomenon of spending cold period in inactive stage by an animal e.g. frog,reptiles, polar bear.
ii) Aestivation – phenomenon of spending dry & hot conditions in an inactive stage by an animal e.g. snail, fishes.

25.Why are predators “prudent in nature?
Ans.Predators are said to be prudent in nature because if a predator is too efficient & overexploitits prey, then the prey might become extinct & following it the predator will also become extinct forlacking of food.


Multiple Choice Questions

1. In humans, each cell normally contains ______ of chromosomes.

2. ______ explained genetic disorders such as alkaptonuria and albinism.

  1. Recessive inheritance has
  2. Dominant genes have
  3. X chromosomes
  4. Y chromosomes

3. It is currently estimated that there are ______ human protein-coding genes although this estimate may be reduced over time.

4. The ______ is the set of observable characteristics and is the sum of genetic and environmental effects.

  1. genotype
  2. phenotype
  3. both genotype and phenotype
  4. neither genotype or phenotype

5. Nature is more important for ______ differences, while nurture has greater influence on ______ differences.

  1. structural and anatomical psychological and social
  2. psychological and social structural and anatomical
  3. structural and psychological anatomical and social
  4. social and anatomical psychological and structural

6. In genome-wide association studies, known SNPs explain ______ of the variation in body mass index despite the evidence of greater than 50% heritability from twin and family studies.

7. The epigenetic inheritance system has been described as ______ (Mayr and Provine, 1980).

  1. genotype inheritance
  2. soft inheritance
  3. RNA inheritance
  4. hard inheritance

8. ______ has been described as the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of different physiological or morphological states in response to different environmental conditions during development (West-Eberhard, 1989).

  1. Fetal plasticity
  2. The fetal origins hypothesis
  3. Developmental plasticity
  4. Environmental plasticity

9. Research from Moshe Szyf and colleagues has provided significant findings on the epigenetic influences of prenatal maternal stress. This work has been labelled ______.

  1. developmental epigenetics
  2. social epigenetics
  3. fetal epigenetics
  4. maternal epigenetics

10. Intergenerational transmission to offspring can occur as a result of parental exposures to ______.


When you restart your thermostat:

  • Your thermostat maintains all your settings, similar to restarting a computer, phone, or tablet.
  • This is a useful troubleshooting step if your thermostat is stuck or frozen, has trouble connecting to the internet, or is not working normally.

When you reset your thermostat

  • Your thermostat erases some or all of its information depending on the option you choose. The thermostat will restore its factory default settings.
  • This is useful if you’re moving out and need to install your thermostat in a new location, or want to leave your thermostat behind and you want to remove all your personal information.

Important: Before you reset your thermostat, write down the wiring information so you can easily enter your thermostat's wiring if needed. On your thermostat, go to Settings Equipment. You may want to do this for other settings such as system heating type and Safety Temperature as well.

Nest Thermostat

Go to Settings and select Restart or Factory Reset . Your thermostat will ask you to confirm your choice. Once you’ve confirmed, your thermostat will take a few moments to restart or reset.

  • If you select Factory Reset, this will remove all your personal settings. After resetting to defaults, you’ll need to set it up and add it to your home in the app again just like you did when you first installed it.

To reset the Nest Thermostat’s account connection, go to Settings Account and select Disconnect. This will remove it from the Home app, so you won’t be able to access any of the control features or settings there.

Nest Thermostat E or Nest Learning Thermostat

Go to Settings Reset, then choose one of the options below:

To restart your thermostat

If you restart, your thermostat will not lose any of your information or settings, similar to a computer, phone or tablet. Once our thermostat boots back up, you can continue to use it.

To reset all or some of your thermostat’s information

This option will clear out your entire temperature schedule. Use this option if you want your thermostat to start learning a new schedule.

Any setpoints that your thermostat has learned, or that you’ve created, will be erased. You’ll need to create a brand new schedule from scratch, or wait while your thermostat learns your new schedule.

Note: If you’re using a Nest Thermostat E and you have Auto-Schedule disabled, you’ll see the option to reset to either a blank schedule as described above or a Basic Schedule. A Basic Schedule is a pre-filled schedule based on a national average that balances energy-savings and comfort.

Your thermostat learns how often you walk by to help it know when to automatically switch to and from Eco Temperatures as you leave and come home. If you reset Home/Away on your thermostat, everything it has learned about when you're home or away will be reset.

Use this reset option if you move your thermostat to a new location in your home, or if you've had your home remodeled. Your thermostat will learn about its new location in a few days.

Tip: Turn on your phone location to help improve automatic switching between Home and Away modes.

Account connection

Note: You may not see this option depending on your thermostat’s software version.

This option will remove your account connection from the thermostat.

After you reset the account connection, you’ll still see your thermostat in the app. However, your thermostat will be listed as “offline” and you’ll no longer be able to control it with the app. To remove it from your account and the app, you’ll need to go to your thermostat’s settings.

Tip: If you’re moving and leaving your thermostat behind and want to use this option, you may also want to reset the temperature schedule as well. This will let the new owners control the system from day one while the thermostat learns a schedule for them.

WWN Connection

Note: You may not see this option depending on your thermostat’s software version.

This option will remove all existing Works with Nest connections between your thermostat and other devices.

If you have Works with Nest (WWN) devices that are connected to your thermostat, they may have stopped working.

  • If you haven’tmigrated to a Google Account, you can restore the WWN functionality:
    .
  1. Reset the WWN connection with this option. again.
  • If you’ve alreadymigrated to a Google Account, use Google Home app to connect your device via Works with Hey Google:
    1. Tap Add on the Home app’s main screen.
    2. Select Set up device.
    3. Browse the Works with Google list for your WWN device and select it. Then follow the app’s instructions.

Note: You may not see this option depending on your thermostat’s software version.

This option will remove all of the network information from your thermostat. Your thermostat will no longer be connected to the internet and it will forget the WI-Fi credentials.

To connect your thermostat back to the internet, you’ll need to select your Wi-Fi network from the Settings Network menu.

All Settings

This option will remove all your personal settings and restore your thermostat to factory default settings.

Important: You should remove your thermostat from your account in the app before using this option to reset to defaults.

After resetting to defaults, you’ll need to set it up and add it to your home in the app again just like you did when you first installed it.

Your thermostat will need time to learn about you and your home before creating your schedule and activating its energy saving features.

Note: If you have any Nest Temperature Sensors, resetting your thermostat does not remove them from your account.


When you set up your Nest Thermostat, it has a default schedule for your Comfort, Eco, and Sleep temperatures that you can further customize. You access schedules through device settings for the Home app.

Your Nest Thermostat has many settings to help you feel comfortable in your home. Hold temperature can maintain the current temperature or any of your presets. You can also set temperatures with a swipe of your thermostat’s touch bar. Learn more about how to control your thermostat.


Review Questions

Which of the following was mentioned as a skill to which psychology students would be exposed?

  1. critical thinking
  2. use of the scientific method
  3. critical evaluation of sources of information
  4. all of the above

Before psychology became a recognized academic discipline, matters of the mind were undertaken by those in ________.

In the scientific method, a hypothesis is a(n) ________.

Based on your reading, which theorist would have been most likely to agree with this statement: Perceptual phenomena are best understood as a combination of their components.

________ is most well-known for proposing his hierarchy of needs.

Rogers believed that providing genuineness, empathy, and ________ in the therapeutic environment for his clients was critical to their being able to deal with their problems.

The operant conditioning chamber (aka ________ box) is a device used to study the principles of operant conditioning.

A researcher interested in how changes in the cells of the hippocampus (a structure in the brain related to learning and memory) are related to memory formation would be most likely to identify as a(n) ________ psychologist.

An individual’s consistent pattern of thought and behavior is known as a(n) ________.

In Milgram’s controversial study on obedience, nearly ________ of the participants were willing to administer what appeared to be lethal electrical shocks to another person because they were told to do so by an authority figure.

A researcher interested in what factors make an employee best suited for a given job would most likely identify as a(n) ________ psychologist.

If someone wanted to become a psychology professor at a 4-year college, they would probably need a ________ degree in psychology.

The ________ places less emphasis on research and more emphasis on application of therapeutic skills.

Which of the following degrees would be the minimum required to teach psychology courses in high school?

One would need at least a(n) ________ degree to serve as a school psychologist.

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    What are the stages of empty nest syndrome?

    Your first kiss. Your first love. Your first child. Your first … adult child moves out?

    According to CIGNA HealthCare, family life cycles have five stages:

    1. Independence from your parents
    2. Settling down with a partner
    3. Becoming a parent to your own children
    4. Launching your adult children into their own independence stage
    5. Your retirement years

    Here, we're going to dive into one particular life cycle phase, launching adult children into the world. When children-turned-young-adults begin to move out of the family home, parents may find themselves deciding not only what to do with the spare bedroom, but also what to do with themselves.

    Empty nest syndrome, sometimes known as the post-parental period, isn't a medical condition. It can be a combination of separation anxiety, sadness, satisfaction and possibility -- maybe with a dash of adventure thrown into the mix. And just like the family life cycle, it too has stages, although they're less defined.

    Life can be full of unexpected changes, but transitioning from full house to empty nest is one that all parents know will eventually come. Learning how to embrace your newly empty nest is just one part of the journey of parenthood. Children leaving home can change you just as bringing home your first child once did.

    Often, though, it's the anticipation of children leaving home that's worse than the reality of the empty nest.

    Children leaving the nest is hardly the end -- it's not the end of being a parent or the end of your relationship with your kids. Let's look at the numbers: Life expectancy for Americans is about 78 years, on average, and the average age a woman has her first child is roughly age 25 [sources: Stein Wilson]. If you do the math, a firstborn child could be about 50 at the time of a parent's death. That's not to be grim, but rather to point out that today the odds are in your favor that you'll not only be alive and well to see your children enter adulthood, but that you'll also live to see them succeed and become parents (or even grandparents) along the way.

    Next, let's look at some of the mixed emotions an empty nest can stir up, as well as ways parents can cope with the transition.

    It's healthy to miss your children after they move away from home -- after all, you were probably accustomed to spending time with them almost every day for the last 18 years or so. Launching a child into the world -- whether it's your firstborn or youngest -- can stir up feelings of loss and emptiness, depression and anxiety. These are all normal feelings during a time of transition, and concerning empty nests, the feelings of loss often begin when the first child leaves home.

    But if those feelings linger beyond the first few weeks or months after a child moves away, it's important to seek the help of your partner, close friends and family. You could even consider finding a support group of other empty nesters. Those who have trouble overcoming their feelings of loss or who find themselves sinking into depression should consider seeking the counsel of a therapist or other health professional.

    It's also healthy to use the empty-nest transition period as a time to reconnect with your partner and to develop a peer relationship with your adult children. Some empty nesters find that once they become accustomed to their new routine -- one without soccer practice, lessons and school events -- they have more time and energy for themselves. This is the stage of exploration, a time to rediscover your interests, your friendships and the world around you.

    This can also be a rejuvenating time for relationships. Results of a study published in the journal "Psychological Science" found that during the empty nest transitional period, married women were more satisfied -- and found more enjoyment in the time they spent -- with their partners (that's quality, not quantity the amount of time spent together didn't necessarily increase) [source: Gorchoff et al].

    And just when you think empty nest syndrome is coming to a close -- maybe you've set up regular phone calls, or use Facebook, Skype or online photo-sharing sites to help stay updated on your kids' experiences -- brace yourself. About 13 percent of parents of adult children report that at least one of their kids moved back into the nest in the last year [source: Wang and Morin].

    Keep reading for lots more information about empty nest syndrome.

    Moms aren't the only ones who suffer the pangs of loss when the kids move out. Although they may not talk much about it, dads also may find themselves dealing with the pain of separation. Health professionals advise men to avoid falling into a pattern of overindulging in alcohol, food or other escapes. Instead of internalizing, talk about it -- remember your partner is likely having similar feelings, and sharing can help deepen the intimacy of your relationship.


    Evaluating Research Questions

    Researchers usually generate many more research questions than they ever attempt to answer. This means they must have some way of evaluating the research questions they generate so that they can choose which ones to pursue. In this section, we consider two criteria for evaluating research questions: the interestingness of the question and the feasibility of answering it.

    Interestingness

    How often do people tie their shoes? Do people feel pain when you punch them in the jaw? Are women more likely to wear makeup than men? Do people prefer vanilla or chocolate ice cream? Although it would be a fairly simple matter to design a study and collect data to answer these questions, you probably would not want to because they are not interesting. We are not talking here about whether a research question is interesting to us personally but whether it is interesting to people more generally and, especially, to the scientific community. But what makes a research question interesting in this sense? Here we look at three factors that affect the interestingness of a research question: the answer is in doubt, the answer fills a gap in the research literature, and the answer has important practical implications.

    First, a research question is interesting to the extent that its answer is in doubt. Obviously, questions that have been answered by scientific research are no longer interesting as the subject of new empirical research. But the fact that a question has not been answered by scientific research does not necessarily make it interesting. There has to be some reasonable chance that the answer to the question will be something that we did not already know. But how can you assess this before actually collecting data? One approach is to try to think of reasons to expect different answers to the question—especially ones that seem to conflict with common sense. If you can think of reasons to expect at least two different answers, then the question might be interesting. If you can think of reasons to expect only one answer, then it probably is not. The question of whether women are more talkative than men is interesting because there are reasons to expect both answers. The existence of the stereotype itself suggests the answer could be yes, but the fact that women’s and men’s verbal abilities are fairly similar suggests the answer could be no. The question of whether people feel pain when you punch them in the jaw is not interesting because there is absolutely no reason to think that the answer could be anything other than a resounding yes.

    A second important factor to consider when deciding if a research question is interesting is whether answering it will fill a gap in the research literature. Again, this means in part that the question has not already been answered by scientific research. But it also means that the question is in some sense a natural one for people who are familiar with the research literature. For example, the question of whether taking lecture notes by hand can help improve students’ exam performance would be likely to occur to anyone who was familiar with research on note taking and the ineffectiveness of shallow processing on learning.

    A final factor to consider when deciding whether a research question is interesting is whether its answer has important practical implications. Again, the question of whether taking notes by hand improves learning has important implications for education, including classroom policies concerning technology use. The question of whether cell phone use impairs driving is interesting because it is relevant to the personal safety of everyone who travels by car and to the debate over whether cell phone use should be restricted by law.

    Feasibility

    A second important criterion for evaluating research questions is the feasibility of successfully answering them. There are many factors that affect feasibility, including time, money, equipment and materials, technical knowledge and skill, and access to research participants. Clearly, researchers need to take these factors into account so that they do not waste time and effort pursuing research that they cannot complete successfully.

    Looking through a sample of professional journals in psychology will reveal many studies that are complicated and difficult to carry out. These include longitudinal designs in which participants are tracked over many years, neuroimaging studies in which participants’ brain activity is measured while they carry out various mental tasks, and complex non-experimental studies involving several variables and complicated statistical analyses. Keep in mind, though, that such research tends to be carried out by teams of highly trained researchers whose work is often supported in part by government and private grants. Also, keep in mind that research does not have to be complicated or difficult to produce interesting and important results. Looking through a sample of professional journals will also reveal studies that are relatively simple and easy to carry out—perhaps involving a convenience sample of university students and a paper-and-pencil task.


    Google Nest Mini: Design

    You'd be hard pressed to tell the Nest Mini apart from the Google Home Mini. The second-generation device is a replica of its predecessor, with the same dimensions and signature curved sides. The 1.65-inch-tall speaker retains the central four-dot LED setup beneath the fabric-swathed exterior.

    Also embedded beneath the cloth cover are a few touch-screen controls, which let you play and pause music and launch Google Assistant. You can tap on either side of the Nest Mini to adjust the volume to your liking. Like the Home Mini and Echo Dot, a physical switch on the back of the Nest Mini lets you deactivate the microphone.

    The Nest Mini comes in fun new colors. In addition to the basic, modern-looking light-grey fabric and white basic combination called Chalk, the Nest Mini has Charcoal gray, Coral orange and Sky-blue variants. The bases on the Charcoal, Coral and Sky Nest Minis are colored to match the fabric, lending a more uniform look to the device.

    I’m a big fan of the Coral version I reviewed. Without looking tacky, it added a bright pop of color to my otherwise black-and-white kitchen area. I presume the Sky Nest Mini would provide a similar effect.

    But I'm less impressed with the hook on the bottom of the speaker. Maybe some will find a use for the notch by hanging the Nest Mini on their wall, perhaps by a front door. I move around and prefer the flexibility of keeping it on a counter. The compact Nest Mini doesn't take up much space anyway.

    A small, but neat side note about the Nest Mini’s design is that its fabric is made of 100% recycled materials. In fact, Google says a half-liter plastic bottle creates enough fabric to cover at least two Nest Mini devices. This is a part of Google's effort to improve its sustainable practices and create products with more recycled plastics.


    Review Questions

    Which of the following was mentioned as a skill to which psychology students would be exposed?

    1. critical thinking
    2. use of the scientific method
    3. critical evaluation of sources of information
    4. all of the above

    Before psychology became a recognized academic discipline, matters of the mind were undertaken by those in ________.

    In the scientific method, a hypothesis is a(n) ________.

    Based on your reading, which theorist would have been most likely to agree with this statement: Perceptual phenomena are best understood as a combination of their components.

    ________ is most well-known for proposing his hierarchy of needs.

    Rogers believed that providing genuineness, empathy, and ________ in the therapeutic environment for his clients was critical to their being able to deal with their problems.

    The operant conditioning chamber (aka ________ box) is a device used to study the principles of operant conditioning.

    A researcher interested in how changes in the cells of the hippocampus (a structure in the brain related to learning and memory) are related to memory formation would be most likely to identify as a(n) ________ psychologist.

    An individual’s consistent pattern of thought and behavior is known as a(n) ________.

    In Milgram’s controversial study on obedience, nearly ________ of the participants were willing to administer what appeared to be lethal electrical shocks to another person because they were told to do so by an authority figure.

    A researcher interested in what factors make an employee best suited for a given job would most likely identify as a(n) ________ psychologist.

    If someone wanted to become a psychology professor at a 4-year college, they would probably need a ________ degree in psychology.

    The ________ places less emphasis on research and more emphasis on application of therapeutic skills.

    Which of the following degrees would be the minimum required to teach psychology courses in high school?

    One would need at least a(n) ________ degree to serve as a school psychologist.

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      2 Mark Questions

      Chapter 13
      Organisms and Populations

      2 Marks Questions
      1. What are the four levels of biological organisation with which ecology basically deals?
      Ans.Organisms, population, communities and biomes.

      2. Differentiate between stenohaline and euryhaline organisms.
      Ans.Euryhaline :Organisms tolerant in wide range of salinities.
      Stenohaline :Organisms tolerant to narrow range of salinities.

      3. List four features which enable the Xeric plants to survive in the desert conditions.
      Ans. (i) thick cuticle
      (ii) Stomata in deep pits
      (iii) Stomata closed during day time
      (iv) leaves reduced to spines (CAM photosynthetic pathway).

      4. Mention the attributes which a population has but not an individual organism.
      Ans.Birth rate, Death rate, Sex ratio, age groups.

      5. Differentiate between stenothermal and eurythermal organisms.
      Ans.Eurythermal :Organisms that can tolerate and thrive in wide range of temperaturesStenothermal :Organisms restricted to a narrow range of temperature.

      6. What are the four ways through which the living organisms respond to abiotic factors?
      Ans. (i) Regulate (ii) Conform (iii) migrate (iv) Suspend

      7. Why do clown fish and sea anemone pair up? What is this relationship called?
      Ans.Clown fish lives in tentacles of sea Anemone and gets protection from predators.
      Interaction – commeasalisn.

      8.Distinguish between ectotherms& Endotherms?
      Ans.Ectotherms are those animals whose body temperature changes & matches with that of environment in which they are living whereas Endotherms are those animal whose body temperature is maintained relatively constant by physiological regulation.

      9.“Lichens are considered good examples of obligate mutualisms”. Comment?
      Ans.Lichens show an intimate mutualistic relationship between a fungus & an algae or cynobacterium where the fungus helps in absorption of nutrients & provides it to bacteria while the algae or cyanobacterium prepares the food.

      10.Give any two examples of defense mechanism in plants against herbivory?
      Ans. i) plants develops certain morphological means of defense e.g. thorns in bougainvillea & spinesin cactus.
      ii) plants produce & store certain chemicals which functions with by directly killing them or by inhibiting them from feeding .

      11.What is Brood parasitism? Give an example. What adaptation has evolved in this phenomenon?
      Ans.Brood parasitism refers to the phenomenon in which one bird species by its eggs in the nest ofanother bird species Evolution has occurred in such a way the eggs of the parasitic birds resemblethose of the host bird in size, colouretc to avoid host bird detecting the foreign eggs & ejecting themfrom the nest e.g. cuckoo bird lays eggs in the nest of crow. It is considered as a parasitic type ofinterspecific interaction because in this relationship the parasite i.e. eggs of cuckoo birds dependson crow’s nest for its food & shelter but the crow is harmed because there is competition for limitedfood and shelter amongst the crow’s egg & cuckoo’s egg thus, in parasitic interspecific interactionthe parasite is benefited while the host is harmed.

      12.An orchid plant is growing on the branch of mango tree. How do you describe this interaction between the orchid & the mango tree?
      Ans.Orchids grows as epiphytes on mango tree. This is an example of commensalism in which orchids are benefited by getting a shelter while the tree is neither benefited nor harmed.

      13.State Gauss’s competitive exclusion principle?
      Ans.Gause’s competitive exclusion principle states that two closely related species competing for the same resources cannot exist together as the competitively inferior one will be eliminated but this is true only when resources are limiting & not otherwise.

      14.What is migration? Why do animals show this phenomenon?
      Ans.Migration is a phenomenon in which organisms can move away temporarily from the stressful conditions in the habitat with hospitable conditions e.g. birds undertake long distance migration during winter.

      15.How do desert lizards maintain a fairly constant body temperature?
      Ans.Desert lizards manage to deal with high temperature by keeping their body temperature fairlyconstant by behavioral means. They bask in the sun & absorb heat when their body temperature isbelow the comfort level & move into shade when it is higher.

      16.Differentiate between Hibernation & aestivation?
      Ans.Hibernation is the phenomenon of spending cold period in inactive stage by an animal whereasaestivation is the phenomenon of spending dry & hot conditions in an inactive stage by animal.

      17.Name the bind of interaction present between the following :-
      i) Indian Nightingale & crow
      ii) Nodulated roots & rhizobium
      iii) Plasmoduim& man
      iv) Orchids & Mongo tree
      Ans. i) Indian Nightingale &crow :- Brood parasitism
      ii) Nodulated roots & rhizobium :- Mutualism
      iii) Plasmoduim& man :- Perasitism
      iv) Orchids & Mongo tree :- Commensalism.

      18.Define carrying capacity?
      Ans.The maximum number of individuals of a population that can be sustained by a given habitat is called its carrying capacity.

      19.If a marine fish is placed in fresh water aquarium, will the fish be able to survive. Why or why not?
      Ans.No, marine fish is unable to survive in a fresh water aquarium because they are adapted to live insaline sea water. They are unable to cope with outside hypotonic environment because ofOsmoregulation problem.

      20.Out of the two population growth models, which one is more realistic & Why?
      Ans. Logistic or S-shaped growth curve is more realistic because no population can continue to grow exponentially, as the resource availability becomes limiting at certain point of time.

      21.What role do predators play in an ecosystem?
      Ans.Predators plays an important role in ecosystem :-
      i)They act as conduct for energy transfer to higher trophic level.
      ii)Theykeep the prey population under control which otherwise can reach very high population density.
      iii)They help in maintaining species diversity in a community.

      22.Most living organisms cannot survive at temperature above 450c. How are some microbes able to live in habitat with temperature exceeding 1000c.
      Ans.Some microbes are able to live in habitats with temperate exceeding 1000 c because theypossess minimum amount of free water in their body. Removal of water provide resistance to hightemperature.

      23.Give below is a graph depicting organismic response to changing external condition. Name the type of organisms which will show:-
      i) pattern A
      ii) pattern B

      Ans. i) Conformers shows pattern A where body temperature changes with the ambienttemperature.
      ii) Regulators shows pattern B where body temperature remains constant.

      24.Mention any two ways in which organisms tide over unfavourable conditions by suspending their activities.
      Ans. i) Hibernation – phenomenon of spending cold period in inactive stage by an animal e.g. frog,reptiles, polar bear.
      ii) Aestivation – phenomenon of spending dry & hot conditions in an inactive stage by an animal e.g. snail, fishes.

      25.Why are predators “prudent in nature?
      Ans.Predators are said to be prudent in nature because if a predator is too efficient & overexploitits prey, then the prey might become extinct & following it the predator will also become extinct forlacking of food.


      Evaluating Research Questions

      Researchers usually generate many more research questions than they ever attempt to answer. This means they must have some way of evaluating the research questions they generate so that they can choose which ones to pursue. In this section, we consider two criteria for evaluating research questions: the interestingness of the question and the feasibility of answering it.

      Interestingness

      How often do people tie their shoes? Do people feel pain when you punch them in the jaw? Are women more likely to wear makeup than men? Do people prefer vanilla or chocolate ice cream? Although it would be a fairly simple matter to design a study and collect data to answer these questions, you probably would not want to because they are not interesting. We are not talking here about whether a research question is interesting to us personally but whether it is interesting to people more generally and, especially, to the scientific community. But what makes a research question interesting in this sense? Here we look at three factors that affect the interestingness of a research question: the answer is in doubt, the answer fills a gap in the research literature, and the answer has important practical implications.

      First, a research question is interesting to the extent that its answer is in doubt. Obviously, questions that have been answered by scientific research are no longer interesting as the subject of new empirical research. But the fact that a question has not been answered by scientific research does not necessarily make it interesting. There has to be some reasonable chance that the answer to the question will be something that we did not already know. But how can you assess this before actually collecting data? One approach is to try to think of reasons to expect different answers to the question—especially ones that seem to conflict with common sense. If you can think of reasons to expect at least two different answers, then the question might be interesting. If you can think of reasons to expect only one answer, then it probably is not. The question of whether women are more talkative than men is interesting because there are reasons to expect both answers. The existence of the stereotype itself suggests the answer could be yes, but the fact that women’s and men’s verbal abilities are fairly similar suggests the answer could be no. The question of whether people feel pain when you punch them in the jaw is not interesting because there is absolutely no reason to think that the answer could be anything other than a resounding yes.

      A second important factor to consider when deciding if a research question is interesting is whether answering it will fill a gap in the research literature. Again, this means in part that the question has not already been answered by scientific research. But it also means that the question is in some sense a natural one for people who are familiar with the research literature. For example, the question of whether taking lecture notes by hand can help improve students’ exam performance would be likely to occur to anyone who was familiar with research on note taking and the ineffectiveness of shallow processing on learning.

      A final factor to consider when deciding whether a research question is interesting is whether its answer has important practical implications. Again, the question of whether taking notes by hand improves learning has important implications for education, including classroom policies concerning technology use. The question of whether cell phone use impairs driving is interesting because it is relevant to the personal safety of everyone who travels by car and to the debate over whether cell phone use should be restricted by law.

      Feasibility

      A second important criterion for evaluating research questions is the feasibility of successfully answering them. There are many factors that affect feasibility, including time, money, equipment and materials, technical knowledge and skill, and access to research participants. Clearly, researchers need to take these factors into account so that they do not waste time and effort pursuing research that they cannot complete successfully.

      Looking through a sample of professional journals in psychology will reveal many studies that are complicated and difficult to carry out. These include longitudinal designs in which participants are tracked over many years, neuroimaging studies in which participants’ brain activity is measured while they carry out various mental tasks, and complex non-experimental studies involving several variables and complicated statistical analyses. Keep in mind, though, that such research tends to be carried out by teams of highly trained researchers whose work is often supported in part by government and private grants. Also, keep in mind that research does not have to be complicated or difficult to produce interesting and important results. Looking through a sample of professional journals will also reveal studies that are relatively simple and easy to carry out—perhaps involving a convenience sample of university students and a paper-and-pencil task.


      Multiple Choice Questions

      1. In humans, each cell normally contains ______ of chromosomes.

      2. ______ explained genetic disorders such as alkaptonuria and albinism.

      1. Recessive inheritance has
      2. Dominant genes have
      3. X chromosomes
      4. Y chromosomes

      3. It is currently estimated that there are ______ human protein-coding genes although this estimate may be reduced over time.

      4. The ______ is the set of observable characteristics and is the sum of genetic and environmental effects.

      1. genotype
      2. phenotype
      3. both genotype and phenotype
      4. neither genotype or phenotype

      5. Nature is more important for ______ differences, while nurture has greater influence on ______ differences.

      1. structural and anatomical psychological and social
      2. psychological and social structural and anatomical
      3. structural and psychological anatomical and social
      4. social and anatomical psychological and structural

      6. In genome-wide association studies, known SNPs explain ______ of the variation in body mass index despite the evidence of greater than 50% heritability from twin and family studies.

      7. The epigenetic inheritance system has been described as ______ (Mayr and Provine, 1980).

      1. genotype inheritance
      2. soft inheritance
      3. RNA inheritance
      4. hard inheritance

      8. ______ has been described as the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of different physiological or morphological states in response to different environmental conditions during development (West-Eberhard, 1989).

      1. Fetal plasticity
      2. The fetal origins hypothesis
      3. Developmental plasticity
      4. Environmental plasticity

      9. Research from Moshe Szyf and colleagues has provided significant findings on the epigenetic influences of prenatal maternal stress. This work has been labelled ______.

      1. developmental epigenetics
      2. social epigenetics
      3. fetal epigenetics
      4. maternal epigenetics

      10. Intergenerational transmission to offspring can occur as a result of parental exposures to ______.


      Google Nest Mini: Design

      You'd be hard pressed to tell the Nest Mini apart from the Google Home Mini. The second-generation device is a replica of its predecessor, with the same dimensions and signature curved sides. The 1.65-inch-tall speaker retains the central four-dot LED setup beneath the fabric-swathed exterior.

      Also embedded beneath the cloth cover are a few touch-screen controls, which let you play and pause music and launch Google Assistant. You can tap on either side of the Nest Mini to adjust the volume to your liking. Like the Home Mini and Echo Dot, a physical switch on the back of the Nest Mini lets you deactivate the microphone.

      The Nest Mini comes in fun new colors. In addition to the basic, modern-looking light-grey fabric and white basic combination called Chalk, the Nest Mini has Charcoal gray, Coral orange and Sky-blue variants. The bases on the Charcoal, Coral and Sky Nest Minis are colored to match the fabric, lending a more uniform look to the device.

      I’m a big fan of the Coral version I reviewed. Without looking tacky, it added a bright pop of color to my otherwise black-and-white kitchen area. I presume the Sky Nest Mini would provide a similar effect.

      But I'm less impressed with the hook on the bottom of the speaker. Maybe some will find a use for the notch by hanging the Nest Mini on their wall, perhaps by a front door. I move around and prefer the flexibility of keeping it on a counter. The compact Nest Mini doesn't take up much space anyway.

      A small, but neat side note about the Nest Mini’s design is that its fabric is made of 100% recycled materials. In fact, Google says a half-liter plastic bottle creates enough fabric to cover at least two Nest Mini devices. This is a part of Google's effort to improve its sustainable practices and create products with more recycled plastics.


      Cell phones promote serious social, psychological issues

      WASHINGTON, April 7, 2013 - “It’s getting harder to differentiate between schizophrenics and people talking on the cell phone. It brings me up short to walk by somebody who appears to be talking to themselves.” Bob Newhart.

      What started out as a means of adult communication has become a teen status symbol and a new age addiction, and it is not a drug: It’s a cell phone. Recent research at Baylor University finds the link between materialism and IT devices are creating a generation of learned compulsive behavior. With four billion cell phones in use today, that’s a substantial amount of compulsion.

      Cell phones act like a pacifier for impulsiveness, which is a major component of addiction. Studies reported by the Journal of Behavioral Sciences show that young adult send an average of 109.5 text messages daily and check their cell phones an average of 60 times a day.

      Dr. Rick Naurert, an expert in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare and an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University claims his research shows 22 percent of cell phone users describe themselves as “Heavy users” with eight percent paying bills of $500 or more per month. A large survey showed 28 percent of cell phone users use their device to contact partners, 28 percent contact close friends, 26 percent contact family and only 11 percent use the phone for business.

      New York City based Psychiatrist Dr. Jeremy Spiegel, founder of Casco Bay Medical with offices in Danvers Mass. and Portland Maine found that cell phone socialization is skeletal and interferes or replaces interfacing with people on a much needed social level. The device is creating what some experts call the “Narcissist Generation” - those who truly believe they are so important and popular with their thoughts they make themselves available to whom over needs them.

      The cell and text addiction feeds the misplaced sense of self-importance and is now exacerbated by twitter, making the young sycophantic and susceptible to non-gainful unintelligent chatter. This meaningless chatter is time consuming and can displace activities of greater personal value.

      The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual V (DSM V), the soon to be released-the 5 th edition bible for mental health care professionals, is rumored to include an appendix to promote research of internet addiction. In today’s world, that addiction translates to any electronic device which generates response behavior that presents as Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and may be contributing to Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).

      To make matters worse, Hiam Einhorn, CEO of EZ Technologies, has sounded the alarm on unacceptable radiation levels from cell phone use. Einhorn notes that no long-term studies currently exist to definitively answer the question of whether cell phone radiation causes brain cancer. He notes, however, that the evidence is trickling in. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) determined the levels of electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones is a possible source of brain cancer.

      The future may hold a means of digital detox and 28 day rehabilitation where the young actually sit in front of each other in an attempt to speak face to face after an anticipated long silence.

      Until then, a responsible electronic industry should produce teen cell phones that can only be operated “X” amount of minutes daily with parental control much like the safeguards built into cable TV and internet pornographic sites.

      There is an unnerving possibility that the physical damage from electromagnetic radiation may go the route of cigarettes a strong socio/political aggressive industry interfering with evidence until millions are addicted and many get deadly ill.

      From a psychological standpoint, while these devices are increasing social connectivity, they are decreasing healthy social connectivity and interfering with human interaction that fosters intimacy and closeness.

      Paul Mountjoy is a Virginia based writer and a member of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Sciences.


      When you set up your Nest Thermostat, it has a default schedule for your Comfort, Eco, and Sleep temperatures that you can further customize. You access schedules through device settings for the Home app.

      Your Nest Thermostat has many settings to help you feel comfortable in your home. Hold temperature can maintain the current temperature or any of your presets. You can also set temperatures with a swipe of your thermostat’s touch bar. Learn more about how to control your thermostat.


      When you restart your thermostat:

      • Your thermostat maintains all your settings, similar to restarting a computer, phone, or tablet.
      • This is a useful troubleshooting step if your thermostat is stuck or frozen, has trouble connecting to the internet, or is not working normally.

      When you reset your thermostat

      • Your thermostat erases some or all of its information depending on the option you choose. The thermostat will restore its factory default settings.
      • This is useful if you’re moving out and need to install your thermostat in a new location, or want to leave your thermostat behind and you want to remove all your personal information.

      Important: Before you reset your thermostat, write down the wiring information so you can easily enter your thermostat's wiring if needed. On your thermostat, go to Settings Equipment. You may want to do this for other settings such as system heating type and Safety Temperature as well.

      Nest Thermostat

      Go to Settings and select Restart or Factory Reset . Your thermostat will ask you to confirm your choice. Once you’ve confirmed, your thermostat will take a few moments to restart or reset.

      • If you select Factory Reset, this will remove all your personal settings. After resetting to defaults, you’ll need to set it up and add it to your home in the app again just like you did when you first installed it.

      To reset the Nest Thermostat’s account connection, go to Settings Account and select Disconnect. This will remove it from the Home app, so you won’t be able to access any of the control features or settings there.

      Nest Thermostat E or Nest Learning Thermostat

      Go to Settings Reset, then choose one of the options below:

      To restart your thermostat

      If you restart, your thermostat will not lose any of your information or settings, similar to a computer, phone or tablet. Once our thermostat boots back up, you can continue to use it.

      To reset all or some of your thermostat’s information

      This option will clear out your entire temperature schedule. Use this option if you want your thermostat to start learning a new schedule.

      Any setpoints that your thermostat has learned, or that you’ve created, will be erased. You’ll need to create a brand new schedule from scratch, or wait while your thermostat learns your new schedule.

      Note: If you’re using a Nest Thermostat E and you have Auto-Schedule disabled, you’ll see the option to reset to either a blank schedule as described above or a Basic Schedule. A Basic Schedule is a pre-filled schedule based on a national average that balances energy-savings and comfort.

      Your thermostat learns how often you walk by to help it know when to automatically switch to and from Eco Temperatures as you leave and come home. If you reset Home/Away on your thermostat, everything it has learned about when you're home or away will be reset.

      Use this reset option if you move your thermostat to a new location in your home, or if you've had your home remodeled. Your thermostat will learn about its new location in a few days.

      Tip: Turn on your phone location to help improve automatic switching between Home and Away modes.

      Account connection

      Note: You may not see this option depending on your thermostat’s software version.

      This option will remove your account connection from the thermostat.

      After you reset the account connection, you’ll still see your thermostat in the app. However, your thermostat will be listed as “offline” and you’ll no longer be able to control it with the app. To remove it from your account and the app, you’ll need to go to your thermostat’s settings.

      Tip: If you’re moving and leaving your thermostat behind and want to use this option, you may also want to reset the temperature schedule as well. This will let the new owners control the system from day one while the thermostat learns a schedule for them.

      WWN Connection

      Note: You may not see this option depending on your thermostat’s software version.

      This option will remove all existing Works with Nest connections between your thermostat and other devices.

      If you have Works with Nest (WWN) devices that are connected to your thermostat, they may have stopped working.

      • If you haven’tmigrated to a Google Account, you can restore the WWN functionality:
        .
    • Reset the WWN connection with this option. again.
      • If you’ve alreadymigrated to a Google Account, use Google Home app to connect your device via Works with Hey Google:
        1. Tap Add on the Home app’s main screen.
        2. Select Set up device.
        3. Browse the Works with Google list for your WWN device and select it. Then follow the app’s instructions.

      Note: You may not see this option depending on your thermostat’s software version.

      This option will remove all of the network information from your thermostat. Your thermostat will no longer be connected to the internet and it will forget the WI-Fi credentials.

      To connect your thermostat back to the internet, you’ll need to select your Wi-Fi network from the Settings Network menu.

      All Settings

      This option will remove all your personal settings and restore your thermostat to factory default settings.

      Important: You should remove your thermostat from your account in the app before using this option to reset to defaults.

      After resetting to defaults, you’ll need to set it up and add it to your home in the app again just like you did when you first installed it.

      Your thermostat will need time to learn about you and your home before creating your schedule and activating its energy saving features.

      Note: If you have any Nest Temperature Sensors, resetting your thermostat does not remove them from your account.


      What are the stages of empty nest syndrome?

      Your first kiss. Your first love. Your first child. Your first … adult child moves out?

      According to CIGNA HealthCare, family life cycles have five stages:

      1. Independence from your parents
      2. Settling down with a partner
      3. Becoming a parent to your own children
      4. Launching your adult children into their own independence stage
      5. Your retirement years

      Here, we're going to dive into one particular life cycle phase, launching adult children into the world. When children-turned-young-adults begin to move out of the family home, parents may find themselves deciding not only what to do with the spare bedroom, but also what to do with themselves.

      Empty nest syndrome, sometimes known as the post-parental period, isn't a medical condition. It can be a combination of separation anxiety, sadness, satisfaction and possibility -- maybe with a dash of adventure thrown into the mix. And just like the family life cycle, it too has stages, although they're less defined.

      Life can be full of unexpected changes, but transitioning from full house to empty nest is one that all parents know will eventually come. Learning how to embrace your newly empty nest is just one part of the journey of parenthood. Children leaving home can change you just as bringing home your first child once did.

      Often, though, it's the anticipation of children leaving home that's worse than the reality of the empty nest.

      Children leaving the nest is hardly the end -- it's not the end of being a parent or the end of your relationship with your kids. Let's look at the numbers: Life expectancy for Americans is about 78 years, on average, and the average age a woman has her first child is roughly age 25 [sources: Stein Wilson]. If you do the math, a firstborn child could be about 50 at the time of a parent's death. That's not to be grim, but rather to point out that today the odds are in your favor that you'll not only be alive and well to see your children enter adulthood, but that you'll also live to see them succeed and become parents (or even grandparents) along the way.

      Next, let's look at some of the mixed emotions an empty nest can stir up, as well as ways parents can cope with the transition.

      It's healthy to miss your children after they move away from home -- after all, you were probably accustomed to spending time with them almost every day for the last 18 years or so. Launching a child into the world -- whether it's your firstborn or youngest -- can stir up feelings of loss and emptiness, depression and anxiety. These are all normal feelings during a time of transition, and concerning empty nests, the feelings of loss often begin when the first child leaves home.

      But if those feelings linger beyond the first few weeks or months after a child moves away, it's important to seek the help of your partner, close friends and family. You could even consider finding a support group of other empty nesters. Those who have trouble overcoming their feelings of loss or who find themselves sinking into depression should consider seeking the counsel of a therapist or other health professional.

      It's also healthy to use the empty-nest transition period as a time to reconnect with your partner and to develop a peer relationship with your adult children. Some empty nesters find that once they become accustomed to their new routine -- one without soccer practice, lessons and school events -- they have more time and energy for themselves. This is the stage of exploration, a time to rediscover your interests, your friendships and the world around you.

      This can also be a rejuvenating time for relationships. Results of a study published in the journal "Psychological Science" found that during the empty nest transitional period, married women were more satisfied -- and found more enjoyment in the time they spent -- with their partners (that's quality, not quantity the amount of time spent together didn't necessarily increase) [source: Gorchoff et al].

      And just when you think empty nest syndrome is coming to a close -- maybe you've set up regular phone calls, or use Facebook, Skype or online photo-sharing sites to help stay updated on your kids' experiences -- brace yourself. About 13 percent of parents of adult children report that at least one of their kids moved back into the nest in the last year [source: Wang and Morin].

      Keep reading for lots more information about empty nest syndrome.

      Moms aren't the only ones who suffer the pangs of loss when the kids move out. Although they may not talk much about it, dads also may find themselves dealing with the pain of separation. Health professionals advise men to avoid falling into a pattern of overindulging in alcohol, food or other escapes. Instead of internalizing, talk about it -- remember your partner is likely having similar feelings, and sharing can help deepen the intimacy of your relationship.