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I have tried to find some papers about Silva Method when that i seen this text in Wikipedia:

James Randi wrote that the Silva Method "claims to develop improved memory, learning ability, and paranormal powers like telepathy. Much of the course consists of 'visiting' absent persons imagined by students and performing diagnoses on them. No tests of the validity of this practice have been done; such tests are discouraged by the teachers of the system."2

so i tried this tags(psychology "Silva") and not find any paper, So if there is not any paper on silva methods, why does it happen? is it not scientific issue or… ?


James Randi is a famous skeptic who challenges paranormal and pseudoscientific claims. Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices may give the appearance of being scientific, but, are untestable. James Randi's claim is that the Silva method is untestable and, therefore, unscientific. In other words, the Silva method has no observable (or statistically significant) effect on memory, learning or telepathy.


Posters

Another way to present research at a conference is in the form of a poster . A poster is typically presented during a one- to two-hour poster session that takes place in a large room at the conference site. Presenters set up their posters on bulletin boards arranged around the room and stand near them. Other researchers then circulate through the room, read the posters, and talk to the presenters. In essence, poster sessions are a grown-up version of the school science fair. But there is nothing childish about them. Posters are used by professional researchers in all scientific disciplines and they are becoming increasingly common. At a recent American Psychological Society Conference, nearly 2,000 posters were presented across 16 separate poster sessions. Among the reasons posters are so popular is that they encourage meaningful interaction among researchers.

New research is often presented in the form of posters at professional conferences.

Although a poster can consist of several sheets of paper that are attached separately to the bulletin board, it is now more common for them to consist of a single large sheet of paper. Either way, the information is organized into distinct sections, including a title, author names and affiliations, an introduction, a method section, a results section, a discussion or conclusions section, references, and acknowledgments. Although posters can include an abstract, this may not be necessary because the poster itself is already a brief summary of the research. Figure 11.7 “Two Possible Ways to Organize the Information on a Poster” shows two different ways that the information on a poster might be organized.

Figure 11.7 Two Possible Ways to Organize the Information on a Poster

Given the conditions under which posters are often presented—for example, in crowded ballrooms where people are also eating, drinking, and socializing—they should be constructed so that they present the main ideas behind the research in as simple and clear a way as possible. The font sizes on a poster should be large—perhaps 72 points for the title and authors’ names and 28 points for the main text. The information should be organized into sections with clear headings, and text should be blocked into sentences or bulleted points rather than paragraphs. It is also better for it to be organized in columns and flow from top to bottom rather than to be organized in rows that flow across the poster. This makes it easier for multiple people to read at the same time without bumping into each other. Posters often include elements that add visual interest. Figures can be more colorful than those in an APA-style manuscript. Posters can also include copies of visual stimuli, photographs of the apparatus, or a simulation of participants being tested. They can also include purely decorative elements, although it is best not to overdo these.

Again, a primary reason that posters are becoming such a popular way to present research is that they facilitate interaction among researchers. Many presenters immediately offer to describe their research to visitors and use the poster as a visual aid. At the very least, it is important for presenters to stand by their posters, greet visitors, offer to answer questions, and be prepared for questions and even the occasional critical comment. It is generally a good idea to have a more detailed write-up of the research available for visitors who want more information, to offer to send them a detailed write-up, or to provide contact information so that they can request more information later.


Search

Question paper (A-level): Paper 3 Issues and options in psychology - June 2017. . Examiner report (A-level): Paper 3 Issues and options in psychology - June 2017.

demonstrate the contribution of psychology to an understanding of individual, social and cultural diversity. . Gregory's constructivist theory of perception – the influence of nurture. Perception uses inferences from visual cues and past experience

Search:. Sitemap. Sitemap. Subjects. Professional development. Exams administration. Programmes. About us. Contact us. Join us. Student support. AQA is not responsible for the content of.

Search:. you are here. Assessment resources. Assessment resources. Refine. Search resources:. Relevance. Newest first. Oldest first. A-Z. Z-A. Filter. Done. "2021examguidance". resourcetype". component". examseries". Newest first. Oldest first. A-Z.

SPECIMEN MATERIAL. A-level PSYCHOLOGY (7182/3) Paper 3 Issues and Options in Psychology. . 3 3. 3 5. 3 4. Turn over . 12. Topic: Forensic Psychology.

past papers, mark schemes and examiners’ reports• sample papers and mark schemes for new courses. . Exampro: a searchable bank of past AQA exam questions• example student answers with examiner commentaries.

Questions: Sports psychology. . Exampro: searchable past paper questions, marks and examiner comments [exampro.co.uk].

We store our past papers on the Secure Key Materials section of e-AQA. . Using our past papers can be a great way to help give students the experience of a timed, balanced exam paper which mimics the real thing.

2. Section A. Issues and debates in Psychology. Answer all questions in this section. . 2 6. 2 7. 2 8. 10. Section D. Aggression or Forensic psychology or Addiction.


Indigenous Healing

The term indigenous has been used primarily in anthropology and social sciences to refer to customs or people who are native to a specific region. In this context, indigenous implies a cultural referent that is non-native this perspective has been characterized traditionally as Western European to the extent that most early anthropologists were European. Thus, people and ways of life that were characterized as indigenous were markedly different from those of the Western European orientation. Furthermore, in the context of anthropology, designation as “native” or “indigenous” implied deficiency, a premise that served to reinforce colonialism and oppression.

Recently, mental health researchers have applied indigenous to various forms of emotional, spiritual, and physical healing practices. Indigenous healing can be defined as beliefs and practices that originate within a culture and are designed specifically for the needs of cultural ingroup members. The notion of healing may imply specific roles and expectations of the helper, including the use of intuition, inspiration, or both being chosen, gifted, or called to be a healer manipulating higher energies through applying specific knowledge and being a conduit between tangible and spiritual worlds.

Characteristics of indigenous healing and healers have been offered in the literature. Some theorists have described the “universal shamanic tradition” to outline intrinsic qualities of indigenous healing: reliance on use of community, group, and family networks to protect and reconnect individuals and/or problem solve to address pressing concerns community participation in spiritual and religious traditions intended for healing and a consideration of healers as keepers of spiritual wisdom, empowered with transcendent skills. Other characteristics of indigenous healing include metaphysical etiology of illness (e.g., influence of deities, figures, or energies), harmony between universal contrasts (e.g., male-female or good-evil), energy and motion (e.g., laying on of hands), and the involvement of the collective (e.g., families, tribe, or community). Lastly, indigenous healing practices tend to define wellness as the homeostasis of physical, social, personal, and spiritual dimensions of the human experience and the holism of mind, body, and spirit. Thus, unlike counseling and psychotherapy, healing methods that have been steeped in the cultural worldviews of Western Europe and reflect consonant values (e.g., individualism, linear thinking, internal locus of responsibility, and separation of mind and body), indigenous healing methods are thought to originate outside of Western frameworks and operate from contrasting values (e.g., collectivism, circular thinking, external locus of responsibility, and the essential interconnection of mind, body, spirit, and the universe).

Examples of indigenous healing practices salient for specific cultural groups have been presented in the mental health literature within-group differences, such as acculturation level, ethnicity, and adoption of diverse worldviews, are to be addressed with clients when mental health practitioners consider integrating indigenous practices in the context of counseling and therapy. For example, indigenous Native American healing practices include the Vision Quest, which is a rite of passage that serves to elevate the individual to a different plane of consciousness through the concentration of life energy in the sweat lodge and herbal treatment from a medicine man. Healing practices that can be considered indigenous for people of African descent can include practices endemic to the Black church, such as prayer, collective readings, and unique relationships between a higher power, the community, and the self.

Among Latino/a populations, the practices of yerberos (i.e., herbalism) and Santeria (i.e., a religion in which Christian deities have been ascribed unique powers and which is characteristic of native African and Caribbean belief systems) may be applied to restore balance through the application or ingestion of liniments and/or herbs, lighting candles or burning herbs, or prayer. Indigenous healing practices of East Asian and Indian cultures (e.g., kampyo or Chinese herbal medicine in Japan, or ayurveda in India) similarly apply herbs and dietary considerations to restore balance between the energy counterparts.

Manipulation of energies through acupuncture, physical movement (e.g., yoga, tai-chi, qi-gong, and reiki), or diet are other methods of restoring balance and regularity to the flow of universal energies in the body.

Counseling professionals are encouraged to build their familiarity with indigenous healing practices relevant to diverse cultural groups in an effort to promote their multicultural counseling competence. Donald R. Atkinson and his colleagues presented a three-dimensional model, in which counselors are advised to consider liaising with indigenous healers when clients indicate that such methods of healing are salient to them. Furthermore, counselors can familiarize themselves with diverse indigenous healing methods through building connections with local healers.


1. Google Scholar

Google Scholar is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It&aposs the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only let&aposs you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free, but also often provides links to full text PDF file.

  • Coverage: approx. 200 million articles
  • Abstracts: only a snippet of the abstract is available
  • Related articles: ✔
  • References: ✔
  • Cited by: ✔
  • Links to full text: ✔
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, Vancouver, RIS, BibTeX

Resources for Finding and Accessing Scientific Papers

Reading scientific literature is a critical part of conceiving of and executing a successful advanced science project. The How to Read a Scientific Paper guide can help you get the most out of each paper you read&mdashfirst, of course, you have to actually get your hands on the paper! That's where this guide comes in. Below you'll find tips and resources for both searching for and acquiring free copies of scientific papers to read.

Academic Search Engines: Resources for Finding Science Paper Citations

When you start your background research, one of the early steps is finding and reading the scientific literature related to your science project (see the Roadmap: How to Get Started On an Advanced Science Project article for more details on project steps). Mentors are a great resource for recommendations about which scientific papers are critical for you to read and you should definitely ask your mentor, or another expert in the field, for advice. But there'll also be times when your mentor is busy or isn't up-to-date on a particular experimental method, in which case, you'll need to be proactive and hunt for papers on your own. It turns out that just plugging search terms into a regular search engine, like Google, Yahoo, or MSN, isn't very effective. The pages you get back will be a wide mixture of websites, and very few will be links to peer-reviewed scientific papers. To find scientific literature, the best thing to use is an academic search engine.

There are many different academic search engines. Some focus on a single discipline, while others have citations from multiple fields. There are a handful of free, publicly available academic search engines that can be accessed online some of these are listed in Table 1, below. The remainder, like the ISI Web of Science, are subscription-based. Universities and colleges often subscribe to academic search engines. If you can't find what you need using a free search engine, you may be able to access these resources from computers in a university or college library. Consult the school's library webpage, or call the library directly, to find out to which academic search engines they subscribe to and whether or not you'd be allowed into the library to access them.

Table 1: This table provides a list of free, online academic search engines for various science disciplines.

Academic Search Engine URL Disciplines Help Files
Google Scholar scholar.google.com All scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/help.html
ScienceDirect http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/search All NA
Pubmed www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed Life sciences www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/disted/pubmedtutorial
IEEE Xplore ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/guesthome.jsp Electronics, Electrical engineering, Computer science NA
National Agricultural Library (AGRICOLA) agricola.nal.usda.gov Agriculture agricola.nal.usda.gov/help/quicksearch.html
Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) eric.ed.gov Education NA

Here are a few tips to help you get started with the academic search engines:

  • Each search engine works slightly differently, so it's worth taking the time to read any available help pages to figure out the best way to use each one.
  • When you're beginning your literature search, try several different key words, both alone and in combination. Then, as you view the results, you can narrow your focus and figure out which key words best describe the kinds of papers in which you are interested.
  • As you read the literature, go back and try additional searches using the jargon and terms you learn while reading.

Note: The results of academic search engines come in the form of an abstract, which you can read to determine if the paper is relevant to your science project, as well as a full citation (author, journal title, volume, page numbers, year, etc.) so that you can find a physical copy of the paper. Search engines do not necessarily contain the full text of the paper for you to read. A few, like PubMed, do provide links to free online versions of the paper, when one is available. Read on for help finding the full paper.

How to Get a Copy of a Scientific Paper

Once you've found the citation for a paper that is relevant to your advanced science project, the next step is actually getting a copy so that you can read it. As mentioned above, some search engines provide links to free online versions of the paper, if one exists. If the search engine doesn't, or if you got the citation somewhere else, like the bibliography of another science paper you were reading, there are several ways to find copies.

Searching for Newer Papers (published during Internet era)

  • Check the library of a local college or university. Academic institutions, like colleges and universities, often subscribe to many scientific journals. Some of these libraries are free to the public. Contact the library, or look at their website, to see if you may use their resources and if they subscribe to the journals in which you're interested. Often, the library's catalog of holdings is online and publicly searchable.
    1. Note: If you do go to a university or college library to photocopy or print journal articles, make sure to bring plenty of change with you, because they won't have any!
  • Look for a free online version. Try searching for the full title of the paper in a regular search engine like Google, Yahoo, or MSN. The paper may come up multiple times, and one of those might be a free, downloadable copy. So, if the first link isn't downloadable, try another.
  • Go directly to the online homepage of the journal in which the paper was published. Some scientific journals are "open-source," meaning that their content is always free online to the public. Others are free online (often after registering with the website) if the paper was published more than a year ago. The Directory of Open Access Journals is also a good place to check to see which journals are free in your field of interest. The website lists journals by subject, as well as by title.
  • Search directly for the homepage of the first or last author of the paper and see if he or she has a PDF of the paper on his or her website. If so, you can download it directly from there. Generally it is only worth looking up the first author (the one who contributed the most to the paper) or the last author (usually the professor in whose lab the work was done and who supervised the science project).
  • Look for the paper (using the title or authors) in a science database, like those listed below, in Table 2. These databases contain free, full-text versions of scientific papers, as well as other relevant information, like publicly accessible data sets.

Table 2: List of databases containing free, full-text scientific papers and data sets.

Database URL Disciplines
NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) www.sti.nasa.gov/STI-public-homepage.html Aerospace
SOA/NASA Astrophysics Data System adswww.harvard.edu/ Astronomy, physics
arXiv arxiv.org/ Physics, Mathematics, Computer science, Quantitative biology, Quantitative finance and statistics
CiteSeer X citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/ Computer science
Public Library of Science (PLOS) https://www.plos.org/ Life sciences
High Wire Press highwire.stanford.edu/lists/freeart.dtl Life sciences
  • Purchase a copy. Depending on the science magazine publisher, you may also come across offers for purchasing a copy of the paper. This is an expensive option, particularly if you have multiple papers you'd like to read try some of the other searching methods first

Searching for Older Papers (published pre-Internet era)

Even with all of the above searching methods, you may not be able to find a free copy of the paper online. This is particularly true for older science papers, which were published before online content became routine. In these cases, there are additional ways to get the paper at no or minimal cost.


Search

Question paper (A-level): Paper 3 Issues and options in psychology - June 2017. . Examiner report (A-level): Paper 3 Issues and options in psychology - June 2017.

demonstrate the contribution of psychology to an understanding of individual, social and cultural diversity. . Gregory's constructivist theory of perception – the influence of nurture. Perception uses inferences from visual cues and past experience

Search:. Sitemap. Sitemap. Subjects. Professional development. Exams administration. Programmes. About us. Contact us. Join us. Student support. AQA is not responsible for the content of.

Search:. you are here. Assessment resources. Assessment resources. Refine. Search resources:. Relevance. Newest first. Oldest first. A-Z. Z-A. Filter. Done. "2021examguidance". resourcetype". component". examseries". Newest first. Oldest first. A-Z.

SPECIMEN MATERIAL. A-level PSYCHOLOGY (7182/3) Paper 3 Issues and Options in Psychology. . 3 3. 3 5. 3 4. Turn over . 12. Topic: Forensic Psychology.

past papers, mark schemes and examiners’ reports• sample papers and mark schemes for new courses. . Exampro: a searchable bank of past AQA exam questions• example student answers with examiner commentaries.

Questions: Sports psychology. . Exampro: searchable past paper questions, marks and examiner comments [exampro.co.uk].

We store our past papers on the Secure Key Materials section of e-AQA. . Using our past papers can be a great way to help give students the experience of a timed, balanced exam paper which mimics the real thing.

2. Section A. Issues and debates in Psychology. Answer all questions in this section. . 2 6. 2 7. 2 8. 10. Section D. Aggression or Forensic psychology or Addiction.


Posters

Another way to present research at a conference is in the form of a poster . A poster is typically presented during a one- to two-hour poster session that takes place in a large room at the conference site. Presenters set up their posters on bulletin boards arranged around the room and stand near them. Other researchers then circulate through the room, read the posters, and talk to the presenters. In essence, poster sessions are a grown-up version of the school science fair. But there is nothing childish about them. Posters are used by professional researchers in all scientific disciplines and they are becoming increasingly common. At a recent American Psychological Society Conference, nearly 2,000 posters were presented across 16 separate poster sessions. Among the reasons posters are so popular is that they encourage meaningful interaction among researchers.

New research is often presented in the form of posters at professional conferences.

Although a poster can consist of several sheets of paper that are attached separately to the bulletin board, it is now more common for them to consist of a single large sheet of paper. Either way, the information is organized into distinct sections, including a title, author names and affiliations, an introduction, a method section, a results section, a discussion or conclusions section, references, and acknowledgments. Although posters can include an abstract, this may not be necessary because the poster itself is already a brief summary of the research. Figure 11.7 “Two Possible Ways to Organize the Information on a Poster” shows two different ways that the information on a poster might be organized.

Figure 11.7 Two Possible Ways to Organize the Information on a Poster

Given the conditions under which posters are often presented—for example, in crowded ballrooms where people are also eating, drinking, and socializing—they should be constructed so that they present the main ideas behind the research in as simple and clear a way as possible. The font sizes on a poster should be large—perhaps 72 points for the title and authors’ names and 28 points for the main text. The information should be organized into sections with clear headings, and text should be blocked into sentences or bulleted points rather than paragraphs. It is also better for it to be organized in columns and flow from top to bottom rather than to be organized in rows that flow across the poster. This makes it easier for multiple people to read at the same time without bumping into each other. Posters often include elements that add visual interest. Figures can be more colorful than those in an APA-style manuscript. Posters can also include copies of visual stimuli, photographs of the apparatus, or a simulation of participants being tested. They can also include purely decorative elements, although it is best not to overdo these.

Again, a primary reason that posters are becoming such a popular way to present research is that they facilitate interaction among researchers. Many presenters immediately offer to describe their research to visitors and use the poster as a visual aid. At the very least, it is important for presenters to stand by their posters, greet visitors, offer to answer questions, and be prepared for questions and even the occasional critical comment. It is generally a good idea to have a more detailed write-up of the research available for visitors who want more information, to offer to send them a detailed write-up, or to provide contact information so that they can request more information later.


Occupational adaptation: toward a holistic approach for contemporary practice, Part 2

This paper introduces a practice model based on the occupational adaptation frame of reference (Schkade & Schultz, 1992). The occupational adaptation practice model emphasizes the creation of a therapeutic climate, the use of occupational activity, and the importance of relative mastery. Practice based on occupational adaptation differs from treatment that focuses on acquisition of functional skills because the practice model directs occupational therapy interventions toward the patient's internal processes and how such processes are facilitated to improve occupational functioning. The occupational adaptation practice model is holistic. The patient's occupational environments (as influenced by physical, social, and cultural properties) are as important as the patient's sensorimotor, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning and the patient's experience of personal limitations and potential is validated. The integration of these concepts drives the treatment process. Through a description of treatment with a variety of patients, this paper presents the model's diversity and illustrates the relationship between the concepts. The occupational adaptation practice model reflects the uniqueness of occupational therapy and integrates the profession's historical practice with contemporary interventions and methods.


Graduation with Distinction

The Graduation with Distinction Program (GwD) is intended for students who demonstrate academic excellence through the successful completion of a significant research project during their undergraduate career. This is especially important for students planning to pursue a graduate degree, but is highly recommended for any student with a strong interest in research.

Who is eligible to enroll in GwD?

Open only to students graduating with a major in psychology or IDM related to psychology. Students pursuing a minor degree in psychology as well as those pursuing Program II will be considered as part of GwD outside of the major.

Students must have an overall GPA of at least 3.0 and a Psychology GPA of at least 3.5 by fall of senior year (GPA points are not rounded psychology GPA does not include grades for Independent Study or GwD Course). Psychology majors may register for the Graduation with Distinction program without meeting these GPA requirements but will not receive Distinction if these GPA requirements are not met at the time of graduation.

Participation in the program is noted on the transcript during the senior year and successful completion results in acknowledgment on the transcript and at graduation ceremonies. Exceptional theses may be nominated by the faculty mentor for consideration for the Karl E. Zener Award, presented annually to an outstanding graduating senior in Psychology.


The Structure of the Methods Section in a Research Paper

The structure of the &lsquomethods&rsquo section in APA style is logical simple. At first, in the method section in APA you need to describe those who took part in the experiment, then what you have used to conduct the experiment, and finally, how it went. Below there are examples of the contents of methods section APA:

Participants

In the 'Participants' section, you need to describe those who were involved in the investigation. Focus on the following criteria depending on the subject:

Mention the quantity of each group. In APA you need to describe the place or method the participants were recruited and if they were compensated or not. Do not use the term &lsquosubject.&rsquo The word &lsquoparticipant&rsquo is preferred in APA style.

One hundred middle school students were enrolled in the experiment. The age range was narrow: from 12 (55 students) to 13 (45 students) years old. There were 33 boys and 77 girls correspondingly. The participants were divided into two groups of 50 participants each without any criteria of choice. The experiment was conducted in the First Middle School of Jamestown, Georgia, USA.

Get your paper written by a professional writer

Materials

In this section, in APA you need to list the apparatus of the experiment. We mean every technical device that was used for gathering data and making an analysis, including computers, tests, etc. Every psychological test usually has got an inventor, do not forget to mention the name while writing the methods section.

Scientific experiment materials can include such testing instruments as microscopes, flasks, retorts, etc. Do not forget to count them and give the proper names to the equipment. If you apply a survey, mention these criteria for proper APA referencing:

  • How the participants responded
  • All-sufficient measures of the experiment
  • The number of questions or statements
  • The interpretation of the format (what the high and low results mean)
  • The reliability of the materials
  • Describe the process if you have created your own measure

The participants were asked to pass a survey using a five points scale (1 = absolutely not and 5 = absolutely yes). For the measure of dream post-effects on health, the Mariam-Johnson Dream Post-Effects Test was applied. It reflects the vulnerability of a child&rsquos subconsciousness towards the harmful effects of nightmares.

Procedure

Here according to APA rules you need to discuss how the data was collected. Make sure that any other person will be able to repeat the experiment after your notes. In APA you have to add as many details as possible: variables, ratios, etc. Mention the conditions the experiment was run in. State the instructions that were given to the participants.

Two groups of participants were asked to pass the test as quickly as possible, without thinking about the questions. They were sitting in individual tables in the classroom. Each question was read by the teacher. The average duration of the experiment was 15 minutes.


What The Teacher Gives to a Student

Taken from an interview with David Hawkins, author of Power vs Force.

PB: What is it that a teacher gives to a student?

DH: The teacher brings knowingness and the energy field of that knowingness, without which a student would not be able to reach it on their own. It's really an energy transmission, classically called silent transmission, which is a high-energy vibration and aura. So although we are paying attention to what is being said, what's really happening is that the energy field has become yours and is accessible to you by your agreement. Nobody forces it.

PB: As if I can tune in to your channel because my lightning rod is nearby, and I am able to receive information.

DH: Yes, so each knowingness with your assent would then become "Aha!" What the teacher gives you is the absolute certainty of that knowingness. Others can give you the information, but they cannot give you the power of certainty that makes it work for you.

PB: So it's like planting seeds: I throw them down, but if I haven't watered or cared for them, they won't become anything.

DH: The energy field has to be of absolute certainty it can't be just something nice you read out of a book or listen to on a CD.

Course participants come from all walks of life with various educational, religious and philosophical backgrounds. As the course continues, a wonderful group spirit develops &ndash often creating lifelong friendships. After completing the course(s) you may repeat with any instructor for a nominal seating charge. Depending on where you live, you may have access to frequent meetings where Silva Method graduates share experiences, ask questions, and make friends. Classes are available throughout the year. Call for further information.


Resources for Finding and Accessing Scientific Papers

Reading scientific literature is a critical part of conceiving of and executing a successful advanced science project. The How to Read a Scientific Paper guide can help you get the most out of each paper you read&mdashfirst, of course, you have to actually get your hands on the paper! That's where this guide comes in. Below you'll find tips and resources for both searching for and acquiring free copies of scientific papers to read.

Academic Search Engines: Resources for Finding Science Paper Citations

When you start your background research, one of the early steps is finding and reading the scientific literature related to your science project (see the Roadmap: How to Get Started On an Advanced Science Project article for more details on project steps). Mentors are a great resource for recommendations about which scientific papers are critical for you to read and you should definitely ask your mentor, or another expert in the field, for advice. But there'll also be times when your mentor is busy or isn't up-to-date on a particular experimental method, in which case, you'll need to be proactive and hunt for papers on your own. It turns out that just plugging search terms into a regular search engine, like Google, Yahoo, or MSN, isn't very effective. The pages you get back will be a wide mixture of websites, and very few will be links to peer-reviewed scientific papers. To find scientific literature, the best thing to use is an academic search engine.

There are many different academic search engines. Some focus on a single discipline, while others have citations from multiple fields. There are a handful of free, publicly available academic search engines that can be accessed online some of these are listed in Table 1, below. The remainder, like the ISI Web of Science, are subscription-based. Universities and colleges often subscribe to academic search engines. If you can't find what you need using a free search engine, you may be able to access these resources from computers in a university or college library. Consult the school's library webpage, or call the library directly, to find out to which academic search engines they subscribe to and whether or not you'd be allowed into the library to access them.

Table 1: This table provides a list of free, online academic search engines for various science disciplines.

Academic Search Engine URL Disciplines Help Files
Google Scholar scholar.google.com All scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/help.html
ScienceDirect http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/search All NA
Pubmed www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed Life sciences www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/disted/pubmedtutorial
IEEE Xplore ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/guesthome.jsp Electronics, Electrical engineering, Computer science NA
National Agricultural Library (AGRICOLA) agricola.nal.usda.gov Agriculture agricola.nal.usda.gov/help/quicksearch.html
Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) eric.ed.gov Education NA

Here are a few tips to help you get started with the academic search engines:

  • Each search engine works slightly differently, so it's worth taking the time to read any available help pages to figure out the best way to use each one.
  • When you're beginning your literature search, try several different key words, both alone and in combination. Then, as you view the results, you can narrow your focus and figure out which key words best describe the kinds of papers in which you are interested.
  • As you read the literature, go back and try additional searches using the jargon and terms you learn while reading.

Note: The results of academic search engines come in the form of an abstract, which you can read to determine if the paper is relevant to your science project, as well as a full citation (author, journal title, volume, page numbers, year, etc.) so that you can find a physical copy of the paper. Search engines do not necessarily contain the full text of the paper for you to read. A few, like PubMed, do provide links to free online versions of the paper, when one is available. Read on for help finding the full paper.

How to Get a Copy of a Scientific Paper

Once you've found the citation for a paper that is relevant to your advanced science project, the next step is actually getting a copy so that you can read it. As mentioned above, some search engines provide links to free online versions of the paper, if one exists. If the search engine doesn't, or if you got the citation somewhere else, like the bibliography of another science paper you were reading, there are several ways to find copies.

Searching for Newer Papers (published during Internet era)

  • Check the library of a local college or university. Academic institutions, like colleges and universities, often subscribe to many scientific journals. Some of these libraries are free to the public. Contact the library, or look at their website, to see if you may use their resources and if they subscribe to the journals in which you're interested. Often, the library's catalog of holdings is online and publicly searchable.
    1. Note: If you do go to a university or college library to photocopy or print journal articles, make sure to bring plenty of change with you, because they won't have any!
  • Look for a free online version. Try searching for the full title of the paper in a regular search engine like Google, Yahoo, or MSN. The paper may come up multiple times, and one of those might be a free, downloadable copy. So, if the first link isn't downloadable, try another.
  • Go directly to the online homepage of the journal in which the paper was published. Some scientific journals are "open-source," meaning that their content is always free online to the public. Others are free online (often after registering with the website) if the paper was published more than a year ago. The Directory of Open Access Journals is also a good place to check to see which journals are free in your field of interest. The website lists journals by subject, as well as by title.
  • Search directly for the homepage of the first or last author of the paper and see if he or she has a PDF of the paper on his or her website. If so, you can download it directly from there. Generally it is only worth looking up the first author (the one who contributed the most to the paper) or the last author (usually the professor in whose lab the work was done and who supervised the science project).
  • Look for the paper (using the title or authors) in a science database, like those listed below, in Table 2. These databases contain free, full-text versions of scientific papers, as well as other relevant information, like publicly accessible data sets.

Table 2: List of databases containing free, full-text scientific papers and data sets.

Database URL Disciplines
NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) www.sti.nasa.gov/STI-public-homepage.html Aerospace
SOA/NASA Astrophysics Data System adswww.harvard.edu/ Astronomy, physics
arXiv arxiv.org/ Physics, Mathematics, Computer science, Quantitative biology, Quantitative finance and statistics
CiteSeer X citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/ Computer science
Public Library of Science (PLOS) https://www.plos.org/ Life sciences
High Wire Press highwire.stanford.edu/lists/freeart.dtl Life sciences
  • Purchase a copy. Depending on the science magazine publisher, you may also come across offers for purchasing a copy of the paper. This is an expensive option, particularly if you have multiple papers you'd like to read try some of the other searching methods first

Searching for Older Papers (published pre-Internet era)

Even with all of the above searching methods, you may not be able to find a free copy of the paper online. This is particularly true for older science papers, which were published before online content became routine. In these cases, there are additional ways to get the paper at no or minimal cost.


1. Google Scholar

Google Scholar is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It&aposs the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only let&aposs you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free, but also often provides links to full text PDF file.

  • Coverage: approx. 200 million articles
  • Abstracts: only a snippet of the abstract is available
  • Related articles: ✔
  • References: ✔
  • Cited by: ✔
  • Links to full text: ✔
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, Vancouver, RIS, BibTeX

Indigenous Healing

The term indigenous has been used primarily in anthropology and social sciences to refer to customs or people who are native to a specific region. In this context, indigenous implies a cultural referent that is non-native this perspective has been characterized traditionally as Western European to the extent that most early anthropologists were European. Thus, people and ways of life that were characterized as indigenous were markedly different from those of the Western European orientation. Furthermore, in the context of anthropology, designation as “native” or “indigenous” implied deficiency, a premise that served to reinforce colonialism and oppression.

Recently, mental health researchers have applied indigenous to various forms of emotional, spiritual, and physical healing practices. Indigenous healing can be defined as beliefs and practices that originate within a culture and are designed specifically for the needs of cultural ingroup members. The notion of healing may imply specific roles and expectations of the helper, including the use of intuition, inspiration, or both being chosen, gifted, or called to be a healer manipulating higher energies through applying specific knowledge and being a conduit between tangible and spiritual worlds.

Characteristics of indigenous healing and healers have been offered in the literature. Some theorists have described the “universal shamanic tradition” to outline intrinsic qualities of indigenous healing: reliance on use of community, group, and family networks to protect and reconnect individuals and/or problem solve to address pressing concerns community participation in spiritual and religious traditions intended for healing and a consideration of healers as keepers of spiritual wisdom, empowered with transcendent skills. Other characteristics of indigenous healing include metaphysical etiology of illness (e.g., influence of deities, figures, or energies), harmony between universal contrasts (e.g., male-female or good-evil), energy and motion (e.g., laying on of hands), and the involvement of the collective (e.g., families, tribe, or community). Lastly, indigenous healing practices tend to define wellness as the homeostasis of physical, social, personal, and spiritual dimensions of the human experience and the holism of mind, body, and spirit. Thus, unlike counseling and psychotherapy, healing methods that have been steeped in the cultural worldviews of Western Europe and reflect consonant values (e.g., individualism, linear thinking, internal locus of responsibility, and separation of mind and body), indigenous healing methods are thought to originate outside of Western frameworks and operate from contrasting values (e.g., collectivism, circular thinking, external locus of responsibility, and the essential interconnection of mind, body, spirit, and the universe).

Examples of indigenous healing practices salient for specific cultural groups have been presented in the mental health literature within-group differences, such as acculturation level, ethnicity, and adoption of diverse worldviews, are to be addressed with clients when mental health practitioners consider integrating indigenous practices in the context of counseling and therapy. For example, indigenous Native American healing practices include the Vision Quest, which is a rite of passage that serves to elevate the individual to a different plane of consciousness through the concentration of life energy in the sweat lodge and herbal treatment from a medicine man. Healing practices that can be considered indigenous for people of African descent can include practices endemic to the Black church, such as prayer, collective readings, and unique relationships between a higher power, the community, and the self.

Among Latino/a populations, the practices of yerberos (i.e., herbalism) and Santeria (i.e., a religion in which Christian deities have been ascribed unique powers and which is characteristic of native African and Caribbean belief systems) may be applied to restore balance through the application or ingestion of liniments and/or herbs, lighting candles or burning herbs, or prayer. Indigenous healing practices of East Asian and Indian cultures (e.g., kampyo or Chinese herbal medicine in Japan, or ayurveda in India) similarly apply herbs and dietary considerations to restore balance between the energy counterparts.

Manipulation of energies through acupuncture, physical movement (e.g., yoga, tai-chi, qi-gong, and reiki), or diet are other methods of restoring balance and regularity to the flow of universal energies in the body.

Counseling professionals are encouraged to build their familiarity with indigenous healing practices relevant to diverse cultural groups in an effort to promote their multicultural counseling competence. Donald R. Atkinson and his colleagues presented a three-dimensional model, in which counselors are advised to consider liaising with indigenous healers when clients indicate that such methods of healing are salient to them. Furthermore, counselors can familiarize themselves with diverse indigenous healing methods through building connections with local healers.


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